History of Porter County, 1882County history published by F. A. Battey and Company . . . .

Source Citation:
Goodspeed, Weston A., and Charles Blanchard. 1882. Counties of Lake and Porter, Indiana: Historical and Biographical. Chicago, Illinois: F. A. Battey and Company. 771 p.







THE Main Branch of the stream known as Crooked Creek, which empties into the Kankakee, and is one of the few considerable streams in the county, has its origin at the southeastern part of Flint Lake, running in a southeast direction to the Washington Township line. Another stream rises near the southwest corner of Section 3, runs in a northwest direction through Section 4 to the extreme northwest corner of the township, and presently empties into Salt Creek, in Portage Township. Upon this creek Henry's Mill is located. The northern branch of Salt Creek also rises in this township, having its origin near to Round Lake in the southeast corner of Section 13, runs in a southeastern direction through Sections 24, 19 and 30, when it barely cuts the line of Washington Township, on the Starr farm, whence it runs in a southwesterly and westerly direction, through Section 30 to Section 25, whence, after leaving Sager's Pond, it runs in a northwesterly direction to its junction with the main branch, thus making at least two-thirds the circuit of Valparaiso. On this branch is Sager's Mill, having one of the best water-powers in the county. The other branch, which rises in the southwestern corner of Washington Township, and makes a circuit of about three miles through Morgan Township, enters Centre Township at the southwest corner of Section 36, runs in a northwesterly direction through Sections 35 and 26 to the junction near the southwestern corner of Valparaiso, whence the united stream runs in a northwesterly direction to the line of Union Township. On this main stream, at a distance of three miles northwest from Valparaiso, is McConkey's Mill.

Round Lake, with a reef of pond lilies surrounding its deeper parts, is a small but deep and clear body of water, as nearly circular as possible, from which feature its name is derived. It is one of those lakes whose depth, according to the belief of all the small boys and of some men, has


never been measured. It is nearly two and a half miles northwest of Valparaiso, on the west side of the Chesterton road. Flint Lake, the most considerable body of water in the township, is a little more than three miles in a northeasterly direction from Valparaiso; is nearly circular in shape; is about forty feet in depth, and is depended upon as the future source of water supply for Valparaiso, its water being very pure and free from all mineral substances. It covers an area of nearly 200 acres, abounds in black bass of the large-mouthed variety, and in fine speckled bass and perch, and is a great resort for boating and fishing. Long Lake, so named from its shape, extending from north to south, is north and west of Flint Lake, into which it empties its waters by a connecting ditch. It covers nearly the same area as Flint Lake, but is of less depth. About one-third of it lies in Liberty Township.

In the neighborhood of Salt Creek are peat bogs of considerable extent. In general, the water which percolates through these bogs is strongly impregnated with iron, and underlying them in many places are considerable layers of bog ore. There are also occasional deposits of pyrites of iron, and various kinds of iron ore in the hills about Valparaiso, and it is no uncommon thing to find clays highly colored with oxide of iron. These are the only minerals of importance in the township so far as known.

An unsuccessful attempt was made at boring for petroleum in the neighborhood of Valparaiso about the year 1864. The signs of iron ore are so abundant as to lead to the conjecture that at some not very distant day that substance may be found in such quantities as to warrant the establishment of smelting works at Valparaiso. No use has been found for the peat, as it is not of such quality as to render its use for fuel economical. There are also deposits of marl in the Salt Creek Valley, and it is said that it was once used in the township for the production of lime. In the neighborhood of Flint Lake are cranberry marshes, but not of great extent. From Valparaiso to the northeast, Morgan Prairie, a sandy loam, lies south of the La Porte road, with the "thick timber" to the north of it, and from Valparaiso to the southwest. Horse Prairie, a rich mold with subsoil of blue clay, extends along the south side of the Hebron road, while on the north of it are clay knobs with oak timber. Originally, about three-fourths of the township was covered with timber. Around Valparaiso, to the south and southwest, and to the northwest, are hills and ravines. From the high grounds to the north of the city, the valley of the Salt Creek presents a prospect of rare beauty, while from a point on the farm of James Fulton, about four and one-half miles northwest from Valparaiso, may be seen, on a clear day, the sand hills which skirt Lake Michigan. Going west from Valparaiso on the Joliet road,


the soil is of alternate sand and clay, while to the north of Valparaiso, the soil is largely a stiff clay. The original forests were chiefly of the different varieties of oak, white predominating, though there were also considerable quantities of hard and soft maple, beech, black walnut, butternut, hickory, basswood, white ash and several varieties of the elm. Wild flowers are found in abundance from early spring till after the heavy frosts of autumn. In the lakes, there is an abundance of the white pond lily, and it would take a botanist to name all the flowers of wood and marsh and field, from the modest violet of the springtime, to the glorious golden rod of September. The prairie soils of the township are well adapted both to grains and grass, while the clay soils, with proper drainage and culture, will well repay the husbandman, either for dairy purposes or crops. The larger fruits have proved very uncertain, failing more frequently than they succeed. Grapes have not ripened well for several years past. Blackberries are liable to suffer from severe winters, while raspberries more frequently succeed. The strawberry is here on its native heath, and is not only productive but of excellent quality. Several attempts have been made to cultivate the cranberry on our marshes, but without success, while the native marshes yielding that fruit have been more profitable than any equal quantity of farming lands. The cultivation of the potato and other esculent roots has generally been profitable. All the ordinary domestic animals and poultry of the Northern States do well here. The black and fox and red squirrels, which were once abundant, have almost disappeared. Gophers are found in considerable, but not in annoying numbers. Ground hogs are still sufficiently numerous to foretell the speedy coming or delay of spring, for such as care to or can observe. From the earliest settlement of the township until within two or three years, wild turkeys have annually been killed in its northern parts. From the sand hills of Lake Michigan to the "islands" of the Kankakee was the original paradise of the wild deer, nor had they entirely disappeared from the northern part of the township until within the last twenty years.

Centre Township is six miles north and south by five miles east and west, being four miles in width on the east side of Town 35, Range 6, and one mile in width from the west side of Town 35, Range 5. It was organized by the first Board of County Commissioners at their first session, which was held April 12 and 13, 1836, and was so named from its geographical position, the round house of the P. Ft. W. & C. R. R., at Valparaiso, which is about a half mile south of the center of the township, being as near as may be the center of the county. The first white settlers in this region found, on the west side of the southeast quarter of Section 19, Range 5, a little north of the La Porte road, a small Indian village of perhaps a dozen lodges, which was called Chiqua's town, from


an Indian who had been a chief of a remnant of the Pottawatomies, the former owners of the soil, but who had been degraded from his chieftainship after a big drunk in which he had participated, and during which his cabin had taken fire and his wife had been burned to death. He was, however, still regarded as a man of some importance in his band. These Indians were not permanent residents of the village, but often absented themselves to spend a considerable time in their favorite hunting and fishing grounds on the Kankakee. For a few years after the first settlement of the township, they would occasionally return to that spot and spend the time in feasting and dancing, dog meat being their favorite dish. G. W. Bartholomew once told the writer of an invitation he had to one of these feasts on fat dog at some place not far from the Kankakee. An Indian named Wap-muk had aimed and fired off his gun in such a way as to take off the top of the head of another brave. Of course, according to the Indian law, the life of the slayer was forfeited, but the matter was compromised by his paying to the widow the estimated value of the dead Indian. This was the more feasible, from the fact that the deceased had been a drunken and worthless fellow, and hence, judged to be worth little either to his family or the band. This happy ending of a deplorable affair was celebrated by killing the fatted dog and an invitation to young Bartholomew to participate.

The pioneers, in selecting their claims previous to the Government survey and the land sale, took their course from Door Prairie westward along the line which divided the thick timber from the prairie, so as to have the advantages offered by each, and the last comer built his cabin just a little beyond that of the previous one. In the fall of 1833, this border land of wood and prairie, had been claimed to the very eastern edge of Centre Township. Adam S. Campbell, with his family, having come from the State of New York, it was their hap to light upon the last piece of unoccupied land in Washington Township, lying upon that highly-favored line of wood and prairie. This was in May, 1833. His son, Samuel A. Campbell, now resides at the same place. There were, at that time, no settlers in Centre Township.

Shortly after Mr. Campbell had set his stakes, there came a man named Seth Hull, who passed over the invisible boundary into Centre Township, made his claim on the site of Chiqua's Town, where is now the residence of the venerable Judge Jesse Johnson, and built himself a cabin there. He did not remain long, however, but it is said went farther West into Illinois, having sold his claim, to Selah Wallace, who became the purchaser of the tract at the land sale in 1835. He was, however, the first white settler of the township. In the fall and winter of 1833, Thomas A. E. Campbell, a young man, and the nephew of Adam S. Campbell,


made a claim and built a house between Wallace's and A. S. Campbell's. He never perfected this claim, but went back soon after making it to Chautauqua County, N. Y., and did not return to this county till 1885. From that time, however, until his death, a few years since, he resided continually in the township and was the recipient of numerous honors at the hands of the citizens of the county. After his return, he soon purchased of Philander A. Paine the northeast quarter of Section 23, where he made his home during the remainder of his life, and where his widow now resides. Selah Wallace's father made a claim on what is now the S. S. Skinner farm and about one mile east of Valparaiso, and came there in the spring of 1834 to live. He was the fourth resident of the township. In 1834, a man named Nise settled on the northwest quarter of Section 24, and about three-quarters of a mile northeast from the public square in Valparaiso, but either sold his claim or abandoned it. Theodore Jones made a claim, and occupied it, on the southwest quarter of Section 19, just west of the elder Wallace's place. This was in 1834. His brother Levi kept bachelor's hall with him. They stayed about a year. Isaac Morgan made the first improvement on that land. A man named Paine, the father of Philander A. Paine, in 1834 or 1835, located on the east side of the Joliet bridge over Salt Creek, built a log cabin and commenced building a saw-mill, which was never completed, though logs had been hauled from a considerable distance to be sawed. He also sold to T. A. E. Campbell. Charles Minnick located on the northeast quarter of Section 24, after its abandonment by Nise. He obtained the east half of that quarter on easy terms. At the sale of lands in 1835, he had not the money to purchase his claim, but a man named Walker, who was interested in the location of the county seat, in consideration of the surrender of the west half of his claim, gave him the money to buy the east half. This Minnick was a Dutchman, and was subsequently Sheriff of the county. During his term, the Hon. Gustavus A. Everts, of La Porte, frequently had business as an attorney in the Porter County Courts. The name was more than a mouthful for the Sheriff, who always, at the court house door, called for him as Gustavivus A. Everts! Samuel Shigley, in 1835 or 1836, built a saw-mill on the site now occupied by William Sager as a flouring mill; that is to say, on Salt Creek, one mile south of Valparaiso. When Adam S. Campbell was on his way to the West, he was met in Elkhart County by a wandering and eccentric character, known as "Bee hunter Clark," who advised him to locate where he did. This Bee-hunter Clark did himself locate in 1834, in the extreme northwest part of the township, at the present site of Henry's Mills. Benjamin McCarty located on the southwest quarter of Section 22, on the Joliet road, in 1834.


Mr. C. A. Ballard built a house on the northwest quarter of Section 25, near a spring and stream, on grounds now belonging to W. C. Talcott. This was not earlier than 1834 or 1835. The place was just south of the land afterward laid out as Portersville. Ruel Starr settled on the eastern side of the township in 1834, and resided in or near the township till his death in 1875, received honors from the people, and acquired a considerable estate. Alanson Finney settled west of Starr's place in 1835. Henry Stoner, Abraham Stoner and a man named Billups came in 1835, and settled in the southeast part of the township.

The first election held in the township was in February, 1836, for county officers. The next election was held at the residence of C. A. Ballard, April 3, 1836, for one Justice of the Peace. At this election, thirteen votes were cast, and Ruel Starr, G. Z. Salyer and John McConnell being candidates, the first-named received nine votes and was elected. May 28 of the same year and at the same place, G. Z. Salyer received eight votes for Justice of the Peace out of a total of fifteen. In August, 1836, at C. A. Ballard's, thirty-three votes were cast for State Senator. On the 7th of November, 1836, at the Presidential election, out of 105 votes polled, Harrison received fifty-nine and Van Buren forty-five. That was held at the house of William Walker in Portersville. August 7, 1837, at the State election which was held in the court house, David Wallace received 101 votes for Governor out of a total of 126. April 2, 1838, the following township officers were elected: Constables -- J. W. Wright, I. Allen, H. G. Hollister; Inspector, G. W. Salisbury; Supervisor of Roads, William Eaton; Overseers of Poor, Charles G. Minnick, Robert Wallace; Fence Viewers, Thomas Butler, William Bingham. At the State election, August 3, 1839, Tighlman A. Howard received ninety-two votes out of a total of 166 for member of Congress. August 3, 1840, Samuel Bigger received 102 for Governor against 100 for Tighlman A. Howard. Henry S. Lane received 103 for Member of Congress, while for State Secretary, Sylvanus Everts received 100 against 101 for Charles W. Cathcart. August 22 of the same year, at an election for Associate Judge, there were 158 votes cast, and the result was a tie between John Herr and Peter D. Cline. November 2, 1840, out of 287 votes for President, Harrison received 149; Van Buren, 137. November, 1844, for President, Polk and Dallas, fifty-seven; Clay and Frelinghuysen, sixty-two; Birney and Morris none, though a few votes were cast in the county for the Abolition candidates. August 4, 1845, for Member of Congress, Samuel C. Sample, sixty-four; Charles W. Cathcart, seventy-one. For Representative, Aaron Lytle received sixty-six, Alexander McDonald, seventy. August, 1846, for Governor, James Whitcomb, seventy-seven; Joseph G. Marshall, eighty-three. State


election, 1847: For Member of Congress, D. D. Pratt, seventy-two; C. W. Cathcart, ninety-five.

From the first, the people of the township devoted themselves to agricultural pursuits, lived in a very plain way, as they still do, and were fairly prosperous in temporal affairs. The monotony of farm life was varied by an occasional visit to the county seat, especially on show or election days, and frequently the question was decided as to which of two was the better man by seeing which could stand the most punishment without crying "Enough." The wheat, as it was threshed, was hauled to Michigan City, and the farmers had to be satisfied to receive no more than 50 cents for it there. Corn was generally fed, as it did not pay to bring it to market. As late as 1860-61, corn sold in Valparaiso for 15 cents a bushel, the pay being in currency, worth on an average about 85 cents on the dollar. Pork sometimes brought no more than $1.50 per hundred.

At an early period, wild game was abundant, such as deer, wild turkeys, grouse, quail, squirrels, and the salt pork of the settler was relieved by frequent feasts procured by the rifle or shot-gun from the forest or prairie. At a certain dancing party held in a country cabin, an immense dish of squirrels was the chief attraction at supper. Frequent reference to a bottle of corn-juice had rendered host and guests less squeamish than usual, so that an accident by which the dish was upset on the puncheon floor proved to be only a momentary interruption, but a subsequent deposit in it of guano by the poultry roosting overhead proved to be more than they could stand, and supper was forthwith ended in disgust. Disorders, however, were rare, for the population was for the most part moral and industrious and not given to spreeing or riotous proceedings of any kind. The inhabitants were at the first generally natives of the United States, being from more southerly portions of Indiana, from Athens and Wayne Counties in Ohio, from New York, Pennsylvania, and from Virginia. Until mills were erected in the township or county, the people resorted to Union Mills, La Porte County, for flour, and for some time received their groceries, iron and merchandise generally from Michigan City.

The first birth in the township is uncertain. The first marriage was that of Richard Henthorne and Jane Spurlock, May 5, 1836, by Cyrus Spurlock, who was a Methodist minister and also Recorder of the county. The marriage of William Eaton to Susannah Ault, by Elijah Casteel, on June 4, 1836, was probably in Portersville, this township, and the marriage of Rev. W. K. Talbott to Sinai Ann McConnell, on July 13, 1836, was doubtless in Centre Township. Of the first death and burial within the limits of the township, no authentic public records have been kept,


and the recollection of the early settlers is indistinct. It is thought that a number of infants or very young children had passed away before the death of any adult. The first woman of whose death we have any certain account was the mother of John N. and S. S. Skinner, well known in the political and business history of the county. Her death occurred in April, 1839. She was buried on the slope just above the Valparaiso Paper Mill, whence her remains were removed some years since to the cemetery. Solomon Cheney, who came to Portersville in the winter of 1836-37, died in November, 1839. His funeral sermon was preached by Elder Comer, and his remains were interred on the west side of the hill in the old cemetery, the original ground of which was donated by the Cheney family for a burial place. His sister, the wife of John Herr, died a few weeks afterward in January, 1840. Her funeral sermon was preached by Rev. James C. Brown, and she was buried near her brother.

There is of course great similarity in all the pioneer history of the West during the same period. There were the same log-rollings, house-raisings and amusements that prevailed in the other new settlements, and diversified with occasional indulgence in distilled spirits and personal rencounters, resulting in disfigured features, though the residents of Centre Township have borne a reputation for peacefulness even in those days. No serious alarms were experienced from the presence of the Indians, though they were not very agreeable neighbors. No such encounters with bears and wolves as one reads of in the lives of Boone and Crockett took place here, though the old hunters of that day could entertain you by the hour with their tales of the pursuit of deer. The barking of the prairie wolf was a familiar sound, but carried with it no alarm, save for the safety of the pigs and calves.

The new-comers had followed from La Porte County the Indian trail to the southwest, which skirted the border land before spoken of. Where Door Village is in that county, there is an opening between forests on the north and groves of timber to the south, giving it some resemblance to a door or gate between that portion of the prairie on the east and that on the west of it. Whatever may have been the Indian name of it, the gap received the French appellation of La Porte, which was given also to the prairie, and afterward to the county. The names of village and prairie have been anglicized, and are now called Door. Through that gap poured the stream of emigration following the path before marked out by the red men to where Valparaiso now is. At this point, the trail continued to the west across Salt Creek in the direction of Joliet, while another diverted to the northwest, running in the direction of Fort Dearborn. Along the high lands between Crooked Creek and Sandy Hook, there had doubtless been from immemorial times a trail from Lake Mich-


igan and the head-waters of the Calumet to the Kankakee. This ran either through or just east of the site of Valparaiso. It is said that the intrepid La Salle 200 years ago passed northward over this trail when returning weary and disheartened from his expedition down the Kankakee. These oboriginal engineers were wise in marking out the paths by which their white successors were to go, but the wagon roads overlying these paths have not done much honor to the present possessors of the soil, since both for want of material for improving the highways and the desultory and reckless employment of means for that purpose, their condition has been such as to reflect no credit upon the people of the township. The building of a plank road from Valparaiso to Michigan City by a company organized for that purpose (1850-53), and a present attempt to improve the streets of Valparaiso by overlaying them with gravel, being the only efforts at bettering the public highways worthy of mention, since the organization of the township. There being no rivers or large streams in the township, the building of bridges has been an insignificant item in the construction of roadways, and this leads to the remark that the great water-shed between the Mississippi system and that of the great lakes, passing, as it does, through this township southward to the west of Long Lake, and thence southeasterly, making a circuit through Washington and Morgan around the course of Salt Creek, and re-entering Centre Township at its southwest corner, is a very sure protection of this region against any serious devastations by floods. We read of farms and cities and whole valleys being inundated, and of bridges and houses and crops being swept away by swelling floods, but here the people can sit in quiet security while torrents descend from the skies, assured that the floods cannot overflow them.

The writer has never heard of any country taverns kept at an early day along the lines of travel for the shelter and refreshment of wayfarers. Doubtless, the latch-string of the settler was "out" for the hungry, weary or belated, and the rude cabin, or more comfortable home, afforded the accommodation which there was no wayside inn to give. The only public houses of the township have been in Valparaiso, and will be spoken of further on.

The first attempt at the erection of a saw-mill has been spoken of. A little later, a mill was put up and run for several years for carding wool by a man named Kinsey, about one and a half miles south of Valparaiso, just below the hill that skirts the valley of Salt Creek. The water flowed from a large spring, and was carried through a hollow beech log to an overshot wheel of great diameter. Attached to this power, was also a pair of buhrs, said to have been about the size of a half bushel measure, which were used for grinding both wheat and corn. On Salt Creek, half


a mile above Sager's mill, Jacob Axe a little later erected a carding-mill, which was used for several years. In 1841, William Cheney built the flouring-mill now owned by William Sager. This subsequently came into the possession of M. B. Crosby. Since coming into Mr. Sager's possession, it was, in 1864, greatly enlarged and improved. Subsequently, there was built the flouring-mill owned since 1866 by William McConkey, formerly Eglin's mill. In 1852, William Cheney and Truman Freeman built a small flouring-mill just south of the corporate limits of Valparaiso. The power is furnished for the most part by springs flowing from beneath the bench of land that skirts the southeastern and southern sides of the city. This mill passed into the hands of the present owner in 1861. In 1855, Samuel Haas and M. B. Crosby built a steam flouring and saw mill within the limits of Valparaiso, on the present site of Kellogg Brothers' machine shops. Its cost was $15,000. On the 7th of June, 1861, S. P. Robbins and a Mr. Cronin, of Chicago, having become interested in it, it was burned with all its contents, involving the owners in heavy loss. The timber of the county being nearly all north of Valparaiso, we must look in that direction for its manufacture. There being no waterpower north of Valparaiso, a steam saw-mill was put up at Flint Lake, at a date now uncertain, by a man named Allen. It was subsequently owned by Capt. Hixon, and was sold by him to Aaron Lytle, and afterward owned by the latter and his son Richard W. It was bought by T. A. Hogan about 1861. It had two twenty-eight-foot boilers, forty-four inches in diameter. In 1863, the end of one of these boilers blew out, and the boiler was lifted up bodily and carried a distance of twenty-five rods into the marsh at the lower end of Flint Lake. In 1867, the mill was sold to Richard W. Lytle, and afterward the boiler was removed to the paper mill then being erected in Valparaiso. The date of the erection of Mr. Henry's mills, in the extreme northwest corner of the township, is unknown to the writer. About 1878, John McQuiston built a saw-mill at Flintville, which was burned in 1881. In connection with the steam saw-mill at Flint Lake, Daniel Depew, agent for certain parties living at Sycamore, Ill., carried on for a number of years quite an extensive stave factory. All the timber available for such uses having been consumed, the work was abandoned about 1867. J. G. Updyke, after the completion of the Peninsular Railroad, built a saw-mill near the depot of that road, which, after being operated for a few years, was removed to Section 8, in Washington Township. The first tannery in the township was built by a Mr. Hatch in 1843, south of the corporate limits of Valparaiso at the time. Afterward, a small tannery was carried by John Marks south of the present line of the Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, and just east of Franklin street. About 1860, a Mr. Gerber built a


Steam tannery on grounds south of the Fort Wayne Railroad, and on the east side of Washington street. In 1865, it passed into the hands of George Powell and John Wark, and, in 1868, into the hands of William Powell and John Wark. In 1871, Wark sold to Powell. In 1874, it was burned to the ground, and the tanning business ceased in Centre Township and Valparaiso to this day.

The population of the township, including Valparaiso, was, in 1850, 1,012; in 1860, it was 2,745; in 1870, it was 4,159; in 1880, it was 5,957. The population of the township, outside of Valparaiso, was, at these several decades, 492, 1,055, 1,394, 1,497. The foreign born population in the whole township, in 1870, was 872. Of these, 272 resided outside of Valparaiso. They are chiefly from Germany (more especially from Schleswig-Holstein), Ireland and Canada. Among the latter, are quite a number of Canadian French. The census reports for 1880 not being published as yet, the number of foreign birth cannot be given here.

Valparaiso. — It is seldom that a county having its resources and population, has within its borders so few villages of any pretensions as Porter County, Ind. And Centre Township has from the first been virtually without any village or city except Valparaiso. Flintville, laid out in 1875 by Wheeler Goodman et al.., near Flint Lake, on the west half of the southeast quarter of Section 6, Town 35, Range 5 west, is a little hamlet having a few residences, a blacksmith and wagon shop and a small saw mill; while Emmettsburg, laid out by S. I. Anthony and T. A. E. Campbell, December 8, 1868, is merely a suburb of Valparaiso.

Some towns have grown up where they are, from the very nature of things. A water power or a crossing of roads gives rise to a factory or a little store, and by gradual accretion there comes to be an assemblage of houses and an increase of business which, at length, necessitates the laying out and incorporation of a village. Other towns have their origin in the speculative minds of men. Thus it was with the town of Portersville. In the early settlement of this State, and its organization into counties, there were wide-awake men who found it to their interest to be on hand at these organizations, and to have a hand in the location of the county seats. This was of course perfectly legitimate, if pursued without corruption. A man named Benjamin McCarty, who had settled on what is now known as the Hicks place, west of Valparaiso on the Joliet road, became the legal owner of the southwest quarter of Section 24, in Town 85, Range 6. It was on the road from La Porte to Fort Dearborn and Joliet, and at the point where that road forks, in order to reach the two places named, the new county having been formed with the territory of Lake attached, but with the understanding that that was soon to be or-


ganized as a separate county, that particular quarter section belonging to Mr. McCarty was also at the geographical center of the county, as it was to be. It appears that before the meeting of the Commissioners of the new county in June, 1836, there was in existence the Portersville Land Company. The plat of the town of Portersville bears date July 7, 1836, and was recorded October 31, 1836. It consisted of forty-two blocks, with the intervening streets and intersecting alleys, bounded on the south by Water street, on the east by Morgan street, on the west by Outlets, 15 to 20, inclusive, while the northern limits consist of Blocks 1 to 5, inclusive, being a strip of four rods in width lying north of Erie street. How the Land Company had its origin is now a matter of conjecture. Its members were J. F. D. Lanier (then a resident of Madison in this State, but afterward a distinguished banker and financier of New York City, and recently deceased), Benjamin McCarty, Enoch McCarty, John Walker, William Walker, James Laughlin, John Saylor and Abram A. Hall. Whether the other members of the company bought their shares from Benjamin McCarty, or whether they were a gift to them in order to secure their influence, is not known. There were three other sites pressing upon the Commissioners their several advantages. One of these was at Prattville; another was at Flint Lake, in which the Fletchers, of Indianapolis, were interested, and the other was a mile and a half northwest of Valparaiso, on the Chicago road. The last was owned by W. K. Talbott, with others, perhaps, interested. Mr. Talbott was a Presbyterian preacher, a school teacher, a Freemason, a politician and something of a speculator. There was not a house in the town of Portersville, and there was, therefore, nothing to hinder its being seen. From the records of the Commissioners, it appears that their dealings were with the Portersville Land Company and not with the legal owner of the land, and that company was able to show a fairly handsome site, to prove that their town was in the very center of the county, and, therefore, most convenient to the population that would come in; and, furthermore, they proposed to give to the county Block 23, and ninety-six lots in blocks numbered 11 to 35, inclusive; that is, half the lots in twenty- four blocks. In addition to this, they proposed to donate to the county $1,200 for the erection of public buildings. There is no evidence that they paid, or offered to pay, anything to the Commissioners, personally, or even that they treated them to brandy or cigars. There is no sign of corruption in what was done, but everything to show that the Commissioners had a single eye to the good of the county. It is evident now that Portersville was the right place for the county seat. Only this, the Land Company was fortunate in owning the right piece of property. This munificent offer having been accepted by the Commissioners, they instructed the county


agent, Mr. Samuel Olinger, to receive the gift in behalf of the county. The whole of Block 23 (now the public square), was given to the seat of justice of the county. As it is expected that the Commissioners will soon erect a new court house, it has been freely suggested that it would be well to build it on some lot facing the public square, and that that should be reserved as a public park. In view of this, it may be well to refer here to the conditions of the original gift, which are found recorded on page 101 in Deed Record A, in the Recorder's office of Porter County, and are in the words following, viz.:

Therefore, in consideration of the seat of justice as aforesaid being and remaining permanently fixed as located by said Commissioners at or near the southwest quarter of Section 24, Township 35, north Range 6 west, in the La Porte Land District, the said Benjamin McCarty being the legal owner of said southwest quarter of said Section, have by virtue of said location and in consideration of the county seat remaining permanently fixed upon the public square, as laid off at or near the center of said quarter section and the public buildings erected thereon, have granted, donated and confirmed unto the said Samuel Olinger, agent appointed agreeably by law for said county, and to his successors in office, block or square No. 23, in the town of Portersville, county and State aforesaid, as the public square and seat of justice for said county of Porter, it being the ground chosen by the said Commissioners for the county seat of said Porter County, * * * and each alternate of 192 lots laid off around the public square, and numbered, etc.

Who was the first to obstruct the vision of the beautiful town of Portersville by the erection of a house ? In the "History of Valparaiso, by a Citizen," published in 1876, it is stated that as soon as the struggle between the rivals for the county seat had "fairly begun, building enterprises began in the east town, as it seemed to win confidence from the the start." "In the spring" -- evidently meaning the spring of 1836 -- "a rough board structure was erected by Cyrus Spurlock, the first Recorder of the county, on the site of the Academy of Music." But the testimony of the old settlers seems to be about unanimous that at the time the county seat was located there was not a building of any kind within the limits of the town as laid off. What's the odds who was the very first to set a stake or drive a nail when quite a number began to build nearly about the same time? that is, when the lots had been offered for sale after the location of the county seat. In the latter part of the summer of 1886, as seems most probable, the work of building began, and went forward, not as it now does in an oil or mining town, but with considerable energy. From one who came here in December, 1836, and has resided here ever since, the writer learns that he saw on his first arrival these buildings: 1. A one-story frame building on Lot 7, Block 28, in two rooms, built by William Eaton, who, with his family, occupied one room, while the other was taken and occupied in January, 1837, by two families, aggregating eleven persons. It was only boarded up on


the outside. 2. There was also a log cabin on the north side of Main street, on Lot 7, Block 20. 3. On Lot 3, Block 27, south side of Mechanic street, was a log house occupied by Cyrus Spurlock, and there, doubtless, the Recorder's office was kept. 4. There was also a frame building on the site of the Academy of Music, where two sons of "Bee-hunter" Clark sold notions and liquor. 5. Dr. Miller Blachley lived on Main street, opposite the public square, on the west side of Lot No. 6, Block 18, where the shoe store of A. J. Pierce & Bro. now is. 6. On (corner) Lot 5, same block, was a chair-maker, a single man, who kept a shop, and who afterward sold to a man named Stotts. 7. William Walker had a house on the south side of Monroe street, Block 31 (Talcott property), in which Hatch, the tanner, afterward lived. 8. John Saylor had a house where Dillingham Brothers' store now is, that is, on Lot 7, Block 18, opposite the court house. There the first court was held in October, 1836, Judge Samuel C. Sample administering, with the other officers and the aid of a grand and petit jury, such justice as the times called for. In December of that same year, the courtly Jeremiah Hamell was found keeping a store in the front part of John Saylor's house aforesaid. Mr. Saylor lived in the back part of the house, and sometimes entertained travelers there, for at that time there was not a tavern in the place. Mr. Hamell had not a very large stock of goods on hand, but he could not have been more affable if he had been in charge of Marshall Field & Co.'s establishment. A lady from the southern part of the county, then young and fond of a joke, having called in and made a purchase, was addressed by the proprietor with, "Madam, is there anything more I can show you?" "Mr. Hamell, I think I'll just take the rest of your stock home in my saddle-bags, select what I want and send the balance back." No man was a more important figure in the early history of the county than Jeremiah Hamell. Energetic in business, pleasing in manners, intelligent in public affairs, a Whig in politics and with the prospect of many honors before him, respected, honored, beloved, he passed away from earth in early manhood. His death occurred March 14, 1846. It is generally believed that Mr. Hamell had the first stock of goods in the place, then John Bishop, and then Dr. Seneca Ball, another prominent character in our early history. He came from La Porte, put up the frame building in which Mr. Porter now lives (southwest corner Franklin and Jefferson), on the northwest corner of Main and Franklin streets. In the front part of that he kept store and lived in the back part of it. The goods kept by these merchants and those that followed them for a good many years were varied in character -- hats and caps for men and boys, ladies' bonnets and ribbons, calico, broadcloth, linsey-woolsey, iron, nails, rakes, hoes, grain cradles and sickles,


tin pans and iron kettles, blue vitriol, indigo, madder, saffron, annotto, logwood, sulphur, red precipitate, spices, sugar, coffee, tea, harness, buckles and black strap. When their goods came on from the East, as they did twice a year, they had a "heap of nice things" to exhibit to their customers and tempt them to extravagance. The list of storekeepers since their day is too long for repetition. Some came and put out their flaring show-bills and trumpeted their own praises for a little while as the New York Store or the Philadelphia or Boston House, sold their goods and their customers, and after a brief season of notoriety quietly packed up their goods and stole away. Others came to stay, and held on their prosperous way. Abel Isham was one of the first to engage in harness and saddlery trade. He afterward turned his attention to books, stationery, etc., and met with repeated misfortunes, his stock and building burning up, without insurance, in 1866-67. He subsequently built the brick storeroom now occupied by Peirce's shoe store, and in his old age is shut out from the sight of day. He has been well known and honored. After him, many others engaged in the harness trade, among them were William Mann, the Vanattas, father and son, and those at present in the trade.

About 1853, John Dunning and his son Warren sold stoves and tinware. Nearly about the same time, Joseph Whitmore engaged in the same business, and, being a practical tinner, from time to time set up in the trade until, after the death of his wife, his family became scattered, and he departed to other fields. Joe was rather a peculiar character; goodhearted and industrious, but of peculiar notions, and somehow failing, like many a worthy man, to get on in the world. Henry Bickford was engaged in the hardware business about 1857; was succeeded by Carpenter & Parke, in 1859; they by Carpenter & Febles, in 1861; they by Hawkins & Freeman, in 1862; they by Hawkins & Cornell, in 1870; Hawkins & Haste, 1871; Hawkins, Haste & Co., 1874; James B. Hawkins, 1877. Whitmore & Brewer, in the same business, were succeeded by Hubbard Hunt in November, 1859; sold to Wilson & Felton in 1863; afterward William Wilson. G. A. Sayles came from Ohio and bought into a small stock of hardware in 1855. Being a practical tinner, has had as partners at various times I. D. Marshall, William Wilson, Horace Foot, 1858; J. C. Pierce, 1866; Robert Jones, 1877; James McFetrich, 1879.

Of dealers in drugs, there were Joseph Lomax, about 1845-46; Lomax & Treat, 1848; Lomax sold to Treat in 1849; he to Porter, Porter to William Harrison; Bryant & Harrison, spring of 1851; S. R. Bryant drew out in the fall of 1851, and established the Old Line Drug Store, and continued the business for many years. Other druggists


[Illustration of M. O'Reilly, Rector, St. Paul's]




have been Aaron & T. G. Lytle, about 1853 or 1854; Hiram Loomis, about 1855 or 1856, burned out a second time January, 1866, and retired from the business. Also R. A. Cameron, both before and for a short time after the war. Others have been Frank Commerford, Commerford & Marshall, W. P. Wilcox, McCarthy & Dunham, Rowley & Son and Rowley & Letherman.

Who can tell who was the first shoemaker? Let him rise and speak. The first shoe store was kept by William Wilson; then Wilson & Hawkins. There have been many others since, among whom were C. Bloch, E. T. Isbell, Isbell & Kennedy, Kennedy & Peirce, George Flake, etc.

The manufacturers and dealers in furniture have been N. R. Strong, in 1848 or 1849; A. Kellogg & Sons engaged in the manufacture of cabinet work in connection with their foundry and machine shops about 1857, and others have been the Le Pells, father and sons, starting about the same time as the Kelloggs, and continuing the business in the family to this day. Samuel Le Baron, furniture and agricultural implements, 1865 to 1867; succeeded by J. M. McGill, and he by George Babcock, agricultural implements only; C. W. Zorn, furniture and repairing and carriage building and trimming.

In blacksmithing, wagon-making and wooden manufactures, there have been the following: In 1889, the brothers George C., A. J, and H. M. Buel, commenced blacksmithing and wagon-making on Lot 2, Block 24. James M. Buel also worked in the wood shop. George left the business after a few years, then H. M. retired, and Andrew Jackson Buel continued the business with energy and success till his lamentable sickness and death, July 3, 1868. He was a most estimable citizen, and for many years an earnest Christian. Jacob Brewer & Bros, also engaged in the business about the same time on Main street. Others in the business have been the Barrys, Thomas and Michael, beginning work with Jackson Buel, but going into it for themselves in 1864, and carrying it on separately since 1874. They have carried on the trade in all the branches of blacksmithing, horseshoeing, making, repairing wagons, and carriages, etc. Henry Williams, T. B. Lauderback, Thomas, Lorenzo Russell and Israel Trahan, Shrop, Spry, McGee, have also been in the wagon-making business. T. A. Hogan has at various times been engaged in the manufacture of wagon stuffs, bent wagon felloes, buggy felloes, shafts and poles, plow handles and beams, sled timbers, cheese boxes, etc.

Daniel White and one of the Kellogg boys went into the planing business in connection with the old foundry about 1858. Daniel White built shops for the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds on Main and Monroe streets in 1864; sold to Wasser & Vastbinder in 1868, who have been


succeeded by Alonzo Smith, A. Freeman and John D. Wilson. White, Hunt & Co. engaged in the lumber trade about 1866, and started their planing mill in 1869 or 1870. They commenced selling hard coal in 1870, being the first dealers in the place. Not more than eight or ten car loads were sold the first year, while the present annual trade is nearly 4,000 tons. W. J. Acker & Co. established a lumber-yard on the northwest corner of Mechanic and La Fayette streets, now on the southwest corner of Washington and Monroe, and the firm. Acker & Hoyt. After the building of the Peninsular railroad (now G. T.) a man named Barringer, of Michigan, started a lumber yard at that depot; and Messrs. White & Bell are keeping one at the same place. The undertakers have been Strong, Wilbraham, the Le Pells and W. Noel. William Quinn began business here as a cooper in 1856, and though once burned out continues in the trade, and is alone in it, though numerous other establishments of a like character have flourished from time to time, chief among them having been the Unruhs.

The first brickyard in the place was started by John Saylor on the northeast corner of Outlot No. 1. Others have been carried on at the present site of the paper mill at Round Lake, south of Crosby's Mill, and on either side of the road leading to Sager's Mill, by Moses Frazier, Charles Briggs, A. W. Lytle, Mr. Bhymer, Dickover & Weaver, Chartier & Dumas, the Durands and others. The present production is about 4,000,000. A brewery was started about twenty years ago, now owned by Korn & Junker, and producing over 2,000 barrels per annum. Another was carried on for some time on the present site of the gas works, but came to an end about 1865. Cigars have been manufactured here for many years by Bernhard Rothermel, Urbahns and H. C. Kruyer. The production is small. Mr. Rothermel is also engaged in the manufacture and bottling of soda water. Market gardening and the cultivation of small fruits have been carried on for the supply of the local demand and for the Chicago market. N. R. Strong, Nahum Cross, George Porter, Wells, Dodd, Myers, De Hart, Brown and numerous others have followed it with more or less success. An attempt was made by Mr. N. R. Strong to produce grape wines during the war, and for some time thereafter. Though a very fair wine was made, the enterprise did not result favorably. Mr. Strong went to California, and the enterprise has been virtually abandoned.

Mr. W. H. Holabird, about 1871, began the manufacture of shooting suits, and a year or two afterward established the enterprise here. His suits attained a wide notoriety, and the sales became large. His health required him to engage in other pursuits, and the business is now in the hands of Upthegrove & McLellan, who employ on an average fifteen


hands, and have a large trade. The Valparaiso Paper Mill was built in 1867. Capital, $20,000. Makes straw wrappers. Consumes 1,000 tons of straw per annum, and produces 700 to 800 tons of paper, worth $30,000 to $40,000. Monthly pay-roll, $550. Don A. Salyer, proprietor.

The Valparaiso Woolen Manufacturing Company was organized in 1866, with a capital of $60,000. A good building was erected and excellent machinery procured. The enterprise started the following year. Julia A. Powell, George and William Powell, A. V. Bartholomew, Hollis R. Skinner and others were stockholders. It was a bad time to begin. Building and machinery were very expensive, prices were from that time until about four years ago on the down grade, the water at the mill was not suitable, and these things, with other causes, combined to render the enterprise unprofitable. The Powells subsequently became possessors of all the stock of the company at a low figure. The goods manufactured had been common knitting yarns, jeans, flannels and occasionally blankets and other fabrics. In 1872, arrangements were made with three brothers, Fontaine, skillful machinists and inventors, for the establishment of the National Pin Factory, in place of the woolen works. This was put in operation in 1872, and discontinued in 1875, the Fontaines having made arrangements for the formation of a company for the manufacture of pins in Detroit. In the meantime, the manufacture of yarns, etc., had been given up for the time, and the manufacture of shoddy was introduced in 1873, and continued till 1877, under the management of H. H. Capamagian, a native of Armenia, in Turkey, and a man of energy and capacity. In the year last named, he removed to Chicago, and had just perfected ingenious machinery for the manufacture of shoddy when he came to a sudden, untimely end by being caught in the machinery of his mill. The present machinery was put in the woolen mills in 1876, and the works started anew, under the efficient superintendence of J. D. Partello. Germantown yarns were made almost exclusively, until 1881, when the knitting of hosiery was added, and in May, 1882, a branch of the knitting department was started at Chicago, where employment is given to 100 hands. The present firm consists George W. Powell and William Powell; value of buildings and machinery, $60,000; annual products $250,000; 500,000 pounds of wool are consumed yearly; 250 hands employed in all; monthly pay-roll, $3,700. The principal market for the manufactured goods is Chicago.

Since 1868, A. W. Lytle has been engaged in putting up ice for the local trade at Flint and Round Lakes. Product, 1,200 tons per annum. Other parties put up ice for their own uses.

Bakeries have been carried on for many years by George Franklin,


Mr. Hutchinson, Griswold & Frazier, Alex Greyson, J. S. Lauderback, John W. Wood, W. G. Windle, C. Fernekes, Munger & Le Claire and J. R. Smith & Son. The production is large for the population, since all the boarding houses connected with the Normal College use baker's bread.

The clock, watch and jewelry business has been carried on by H. S. Isham, now of Chicago; Abellsham, now retired and infirm; Aaron Rogers, a famous hunter of snipe; W. H. Vail, Lyman Jones (died in early manhood) and Messrs. Budd & Bell. As to the dry goods, clothing and grocery trades it would be impossible to name those who have engaged in them from time to time, in the space allotted. The fourth store kept in the place was probably by G. Z. Salyer (deceased since 1860), and the fifth by Mr. C. E. De Wolf, who used to live where Joseph Gardner now resides, and is responsible for the majestic pines that surround the place. He now lives in Michigan City. He is a wealthy capitalist, and is still the owner of a large amount of land in this county. Other dry goods merchants have been F. W. Hunt, Bartholomew & McClelland, H. Dillenbeck, T. T. Maulsley, Don A. Salyer, Charles Osgood, Osgood & Berry, Quatermass Brothers, Emerson Quatermass & Company, George Quatermass, Joseph Steinfield, G. Bloch, G. Silberberg, Strauss & Joel, L. D. Bondey, Max Albe, A. V. Bartholomew, etc. Tailoring has been carried on by John Herr, O. Dunham and many others, and merchant tailoring by Henry Andrews, Charles McCloskey, Robert McNay, David Maxfield, the Benham Brothers and others, as well as by leading dry goods firms.

In the book and stationery trade have been Abel Isham, M. A. Salisbury, E. G. Salisbury, Cline & Sloane, J. N. Sloane, B. F. Perrine. Valparaiso has been for some years not only a good place to sell books but a good place to buy them, and the trade has been very heavy for the population. A prosperous trade has also been carried on in music and musical instruments by M. A. Salisbury, W. Huntington, R. A. Heritage and others. When the first band was started -- who knows? But in the Porter Democrat of October 14, 1858, is an advertisement of the Valparaiso Union Band, De Motte and Salyer, Conductors, and purposing to blow music out of $500 worth of new instruments, for conventions, political meetings, etc. Surely these be none other than our genial Congressman and our substantial manufacturer of paper.

The first Postmaster of Portersville was Benjamin McCarty, and for a time John C. Bull was his Deputy. There was some dissatisfaction, growing out of the fact that Mr. McCarty did not reside in the village, and in 1839 T. A. E. Campbell was appointed. During his term, the office was kept in the southeast corner of the court house, and behind that Mr. Campbell kept bachelor's hall. He was at the same time Deputy


Clerk of the Court for George W. Turner. In 1841, he was elected Treasurer and Collector of the county, and G. W. Salisbury was appointed Postmaster, and held the office during the administrations of Harrison and Tyler. The office was then kept in his house on the south side of the public square. From 1845 to 1849, during Polk's administration, Joseph Lomax held the office, and it was kept where his business was, being for the most part on Main street, north side, and west of Washington. When the Whigs again came into power in 1849, G. W. Salisbury was again appointed, and held the office for a time, until he left Valparaiso for Oregon, when John Dunning was appointed, and held the office till the accession of Franklin Pierce in 1853. Then S. R. Bryant was appointed, and kept the office through the administrations of both Pierce and Buchanan, till the accession of Lincoln in 1861. M. A. Salisbury was then appointed, and held the office till the fall of 1866. The office then "Johnsonized," as it was called, and J. Beekman Marshall, now of Kansas, became Postmaster till he was succeeded by C. C. S. Keech, on the 20th of April, 1867. Mr. Keech held the office for a very short time, but was a most efficient officer, giving general satisfaction. He had not sufficient influence to retain the position, but gracefully yielded it on the 17th of June, the same year, to Dr. J. F. McCarthy. On the 24th of April, 1882, Dr. McCarthy yielded the place to Col. I. C. B. Suman, after having held it fourteen years and eleven months, being by far the longest incumbency since the establishment of the office. According to the tendency in the postal service, many improvements took place during Dr. McCarthy's term. In the increasing duties of the office, he was ably assisted by Mrs. McCarthy and by J. R. Drapier. Hon. Jesse Johnson received the first letter ever delivered at the Portersville office. The name of the village and office was changed in the winter of 1837-38 to Valparaiso. As showing how the business has increased since the days when 37 1/2 cents postage was paid on a single letter from Madison, Ind., to this place, which sum was prepaid July 19, 1841, by Jesse D. Bright, on a letter addressed by him to T. A. E. Campbell, concerning the compensation of the latter for taking the census in this county the preceding year, the following statistics are presented: The amount of domestic and foreign money orders paid at the Valparaiso Post Office during the year ending June 30, 1882, was $66,079.60; number of money orders issued for the year ending June 30, 1882, domestic, 2, 379; foreign, 92. During the same year the receipts for the sale of stamps, stamped envelopes, postal cards, etc., were $10.308.18; for box rent for same period, $1,109; registered letters sent, 1,102; registered letters delivered, 2,573; registered letters in transit, 64.

Various additions of territory have been made from time to time to


the original plat of the village, as follows: Original town laid out July 7, 1836, and recorded October 31 of same year. 1. Haas's Addition, April 8, 1854, and 2, Peirce's Addition, April 18, 1854, the former consisting of one and one-half blocks north of Outlot 20, the latter the same amount of land north of Block 42, original survey. 3. West Valparaiso, which consists of a triangular plat of ground, bounded on the east by Outlots 18 and 19 (Mrs. Hamell's), on the north by Third street, and on the south by First street and the Joliet road, May 13, 1854. 4. Woodhull's Addition, which consists of thirty-six blocks of land lying east of Outlots 1 to 7, original survey, April 5, 1856. 5. Smith's Addition, bounded on the south by the Fort Wayne Railroad, west by the old cemetery, north by Woodhull's Addition, and on the east by the street on the east of college grounds, July 18, 1859. 6. North Valparaiso, being ten blocks bounded on the south by the original survey, on the west by Calumet street, on the north by Elm street, and on the east by Valparaiso street, May 9, 1859. 7. Powell's Addition, bounded on the north by lands of Skinner & Beach, east by Calumet street, south by original survey and Haas's & Peirce's Addition, and on the west by Campbell's farm, July 28, 1860. 8. Institute Addition, three blocks north of Joliet road, and west of Fort Wayne Railroad, March 30, 1864. 9. Southwest Valparaiso, nine blocks, and six lots of peat marsh, south of Fort Wayne depot and southwest of woolen factory, November 2, 1864. 10. First addition to North Valparaiso, twenty-eight blocks north and east of North Valparaiso, May 10, 1869. Other additions have been surveyed, but are not as yet included in the city limits.

The report of population in 1840 is not accessible to the writer. In 1850, it was 520. In 1860, 1,690. In 1870, 2,760. In 1880, 4,460, or about nine times what it was in 1850. If the increase should be in the same ratio in the future, the population in 1910 would be over 35,000.

The small number of stores in 1836 to 1839 have increased to a multitude, and stocks of goods that could almost be loaded on a good-sized wagon have grown to a value of $12,000 to $20,000, and the annual sales, which could hardly have exceeded $10,000 for all the establishments during the first year, have now mounted up to $60,000, $90,000 and $100,000 for single firms. Valparaiso has, at this time, the following business houses: Liquor saloons, eighteen; cigars and confectionery, six; restaurants, four; railroad eating-houses, two; groceries, fourteen; bakeries, five; dry goods, clothing, etc., nine; varieties and notions, one; trimmings and fancy goods, one; millinery and fancy goods, five; hardware, etc., four; agricultural implements, two; books, stationery, etc., four; leather and findings, one; lumber yards, three; planing-mills, two; foundries and machine shops, one; brick yards, three; woolen manufac-


tory and knitting works, one; paper-mill, one; feed stores, three; lime, etc., two; cigar manufactories, two; National banks, two; banking houses, one; furniture, three; undertakers, two; gunsmiths, one; hotels, six; drugs, etc., four; jewelry, three; boots and shoes, seven; merchant tailoring, three; hats, caps, etc., two.

As an instance of the prosperity attending business even in hard times, M. S. Harrold came to Valparaiso in 1864, with a few hundred dollars, and engaged in the grocery trade, and he has since then secured a comfortable competency in the carrying-on of a legitimate business, while the firm in which he is the principal partner sells annually more than $90,000 in groceries and ships 250 car loads of grain.

The first Blue Lodge of Freemasons was constituted about 1840 or 1841. The charter members were Jonathan Griffin, James Luther, Ruel Starr, John E. Harris, John Curtis, John Wood, Arthur Buel, Adam S. Campbell, W. K. Talbott and ----- Cone. After a few years, this lodge (No. 49) went down for want of money and a room to meet in. About 1850, George C. Buel, Isaac Bowman, O. I. Skinner, John Wolf, N. S. Fairchilds, John Woods, John E. Harris, Andrew Hopp, George Z. Salyer, were charter members in the organization of Porter Lodge. Of the first lodge organized John E. Harris was W. M., and George C. Buel W. M. of Porter Lodge. Since the organization, the order has been very flourishing, and has kept itself very pure. A number of years since a Chapter was formed, and still later an Encampment of Knights Templar. The Chapter house and Encampment occupy the upper story in the fine building on the northwest corner of Main and La Fayette streets.

Che-queuk Lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted December 2, 1848, the charter members being Joseph Lomax, E. Ellis Campbell, Robert G. Flint, John Dunning and William Harrison. The officers of the lodge at its organization were Joseph Lomax, N. G.; E. Ellis Campbell, V. G.; John Dunning, Secretary; William Harrison, I. C; Robert G. Flint, Treasurer, and were installed by the Grand Officers, Col. Hathaway, G. M., Luther Mann, G. C, and other officiating officers from La Porte, also Dr. Dunning, of La Fayette, and some other notables. The lodge increased from that time weekly from the best citizens. Difficulty was experienced in finding sufficient lodge-room until a brick store was erected, where Dr. Edmonds' store now stands, the third floor of which was obtained and occupied until it burned August 13, 1859, with all the lodge furniture and costly regalia. In two weeks from that time they opened up again in Hughart's Hall (now William Wilson's). Before the rebellion broke out, the lodge had been established on a solid basis. Most of the members who enlisted had their dues remitted, and the charitable donations were continued. As the lodge prospered, it contributed to the relief


of the sufferers by the great Chicago fire, and later to sufferers by the Michigan fires. Obligations have been kept to pay all sick benefits, to to visit the sick, bury the dead, provide for the orphan and the widow, and all like Christian obligations. This year (1882), the lodge has erected a fine hall for their accommodation, which will, in a short time, be completed and furnished for occupancy. The lodge is flourishing, and new members are being added weekly. Since 1860, an average of $200 per annum has been paid by the lodge for the education and support of orphans, the relief of widows, funerals and sick benefits.

The Thousand and One order has also flourished at times in Valparaiso, and has numbered among its members leading men in business, and the legal and other professions. It is said that the initiations have been of thrilling interest. The meetings have usually been held in the Academy of Music.

The first physicians who located in Valparaiso were Miller Blachley, Seneca Ball, G. W. Salisbury, Dr. Robbins and Dr. Kersey. They represented various schools of practice. Since that time, the number has been great, many staying long enough to make an unsatisfactory trial, and others -- charlatans -- staying long enough to bleed numerous victims and then going off to fresher fields and newer pastures. Of regular physicians, there are now residing here Drs. J. H. and A. P. Letherman, J. H. Newland, J. F. McCarthy, H. V. Herriott, H. M. Beer; of eclectics, J. H. Ryan, H. C. Coates and W. A. Yohn; of homoeopaths, M. F. Sayles and W. O. Cattron.

Among the earlier dentists, the one who stayed longest and attained the greatest success was Dr. George Porter, who died of consumption previous to 1870, and whose family still reside here. There was also Dr. B. M. Thomas, a skillful practitioner and honorable gentleman, now of Santa Fe, N. M. Dr. Boyd succeeded him in practice, and has but lately retired with a competency, on account of ill health. The resident dentists at present are J. H. and Mrs. M. E. Edmonds and H. D. Newton.

The first member of the legal profession who came to this place was Josiah S. Masters, said to have been of a good family in the State of New York. He did a very little business in his profession, and taught the first school in Portersville in a house on the northwest corner of Mechanic and Morgan streets. Samuel I. Anthony came and was admitted to the bar in October, 1839. Harlowe S. Orton, now of Madison, Wis., came a little before that time. George W. Turner, who had served one term as Clerk of Court, began the practice of law probably about 1845 or 1846, and left in a peculiar manner in 1856. M. M. Fassett and John W. Murphy came afterward. M. L. De Motte came early in 1855. T. J. Merrifield came July 5, 1855. C. I. Thompson was here from 1859 to


1865. From the organization of the court in 1837 to 1855, the business was largely done by attorneys from South Bend and La Porte, notably by Joseph L. Jernegan, Joseph W. Chapman, John B. Niles, John H. Bradley, James Bradley, Roberts Merrifield, W. O. Hanna and others. Joseph L. Jernegan was the first prosecutor. The resident attorneys at this time are Thomas J. Merrifield, J. M. Howard, A. D. Bartholomew, Edgar D. Crumpacker, William Johnson, Thomas McLoughlin, John E. Cass, W. E. Pinney, Hiram A. and John H. Gillett, John W. Rose, J. Hanford Skinner, A. L. Jones, M. L. De Motte, Frank P. Jones and Nelson J. Bozarth.

The city hall was put up, in 1878, on the south side of the public square, and is not of any particular order of architecture, unless it be the Hoosier. The city bridewell was put up in 1881, just to the rear of the city hall.

Valparaiso was incorporated as a village by special act of the Legislature in 1850. The Town Council usually met in the office of the County Recorder. It consisted of six persons, and elections for Councilmen were held annually. No business of great moment was transacted by them. They voted away the money of the people sparingly, and undertook no great public improvements. They had no bonded debt resting upon the town when it became a city. This was in 1865. The Fourth of July was habitually celebrated, and the older inhabitants will not forget the marshaling of the processions on those days. Valparaiso boasted a citizen who in form and spirit was designed to wear the marshal's sash and ride upon a charger. He has since become the most noted of Valparaiso's military heroes. It was he who headed the preachers, the Sunday schools and citizens as they filed into the public square to the sound of the old iron cannon to eat the Fourth of July dinner and listen to the reading of the Declaration of Independence and the annual oration. In 1880, the Western Union Telegraph Company established a city office in addition to those at the depots. The Bell Telephone Company established an office and commenced business here in 1882. F. W. & H. Hunt, after carrying on the dry goods business from the fall of 1846, began banking in 1855. They dissolved partnership in 1856, and the business has since been carried on by F. W. Hunt.

The articles of association of the First National Bank were signed May 20, 1863, with twenty-one stockholders. Levi A. Cass, Jr., A. V. Bartholomew, W. C. Talcott, S. W. Smith, B. F. Schenck, Joseph Peirce and Thomas S. Stanfield were elected Directors July 15, 1863. Levi A. Cass, President, and M. L. McClelland, Cashier. Capital, $50,000. Issue, $45,000. First did business on the east side of Washington street, where express office now is. Surplus, July 1, 1877, $13,606.76,


after having paid 10 per cent dividends yearly. The first loan was made December 12, 1863, and first certificate of deposit issued to Mrs. Mary E. Brown November 30, 1863. B. F. Schenck, President, January 12, 1864, to July 1, 1864; then L. A. Cass to January 12, 1869; then S. S. Skinner to January 16, 1878, when D. F. L. Skinner was elected. M. L. McClelland was Cashier till March, 1881. In 1866, C. V. Culver, of New York, owner of 100 shares, and with whose house the bank kept its Eastern balances, being in the oil speculation, failed. The 100 shares of stock were purchased of the Third National Bank of New York at $80 per share, and sold to William Powell for $120.50 per share. With $4,000 profit on this transaction, the stockholders had no reason to feel bad over the failure. The bank went into voluntary liquidation May 29, 1882, and was immediately succeeded by the new First National Bank with a capital of $100,000. Removed to present building on the south third of Lot 2, Block 4, in the fall of 1874.

The Farmers' National Bank of Valparaiso was organized in November, 1878, to succeed the private bank of Joseph Gardner, and commenced business February 1, 1879, with a capital of $50,000. The Board of Directors first elected and serving at present are Joseph Gardner, A. V. Bartholomew, W. P. Wilcox, J. M. Felton and Joseph R. Hill, who represent nine-tenths of the capital stock of the bank. The deposits of the bank at its commencement as a National Bank were about $70,000. Since February 1, 1879, they have gradually increased until at the present date they are $230,000. The average deposits of the bank are $200,000. It has paid semi-annual dividends of 6 per cent since its commencement, and has accumulated a surplus fund at present of $14,300. The capital was increased May, 1882, to $70,000. The bank at present has a capital and surplus fund of about $85,000. Joseph Gardner, President; G. F. Bartholomew, Cashier.

Under a general act of the Legislature which permitted towns of 2,000 population or over to put on city airs, an enumeration was had in the fall of that year, and the necessary population was found, or declared to be. By a vote of the citizens Valparaiso became a city, and learned how much it costs to put on style. In 1866, water works (so-called), were put up with some help from the county, supplying several cisterns and occasionally a fountain (so-called) in the public square. While it is ridiculous to call these water works, the people could hardly get along without them. The same year the city incurred a debt of $50,000, bearing 10 per cent interest, to bring the Peninsular Railway here. Grounds for a new cemetery were purchased in 1868, more than two miles southeast from the court house. In 1870, the city purchased for $10,000 the building and grounds of the Valparaiso Collegiate Institute, the proceeds of


which were distributed among the stockholders. Bonds were issued for the erection of a school building, which was put up and occupied the following year. The building presents a sightly appearance on the outside, but for the purpose it is used for is faulty in design and construction. Thus the city had a bonded debt of more than $70,000 upon it. Thomas J. Merrifield was Mayor of the city from its organization till May, 1868. Then Thomas G. Lytle till May, 1872. He was succeeded by John N. Skinner, a man of such remarkable mold that he continued to preside over the destinies of the city till his death, this present year, 1882, just before the city election, he being then a candidate for re-election for a sixth term, and was twice a candidate for Congress during the same period. During the latter year of his first term, in the winter of 1873-74, occurred the temperance crusade carried on by the ladies, with watching, prayer, singing, producing intense excitement and feeling throughout the community, and attracting no little attention from abroad. Valparaiso then had eight saloons. It has eighteen now; but the population has well nigh doubled. While the interest was at its height, the Mayor issued the following: 


WHEREAS, For several days last past, large numbers of persons have been engaged in assembling on and about the premises of citizens pursuing a lawful business, and remaining on said premises against the will of the owners thereof, and for the avowed purpose of interfering with their business; and

WHEREAS, Many of said persons declare their intention of persisting in such conduct. Now, therefore, all such persons so assembling and remaining, are hereby notified that such conduct is unlawful and against the ordinances of the city of Valparaiso, and they are admonished as good citizens to desist from the same, and that it is the duty of the authorities of said city and of all law-abiding citizens in the interest of public peace and order, to enforce the said ordinances and disperse such assemblages.

VALPARAISO, February 23, 1874.                     JOHN N. SKINNER, Mayor of Valparaiso.

In a few hours after the appearance of the proclamation, the ladies responded with the following manifesto, which was posted up and freely distributed upon the streets. Both documents are historic, and in some houses they are to be seen hanging up framed side by side.

Why do the Heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The Kings of the Earth set themselves, and the Rulers take counsel together against the Lord, and against His Anointed, saying -- Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the Heavens shall laugh; the Lord shall have them in derision. -- Psalm 2, 1-4.

And they called them, and commanded them not to speak at all, nor teach in the name of Jesus. But Peter and John answered and said unto them, Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye. -- Acts, 4, 18-19.

We ought to obey God rather than men. -- Acts, 5, 29.

TO THE PUBLIC. — In the temperance movement we have undertaken, we have had no purpose to violate the laws of the State, or interfere with the rights of any citizen. We have malice in our hearts toward none, but charity toward all. We believe we have the right to persuade men to cease from strong drink, and to plead with the liquor seller to cease from his traffic. Believing, too, that God has called us to the high duty of saving our fellow-men, we will not cease to pray and labor to this end. It is our solemn


purpose, with love in our hearts to God and man, to go right forward in the work we have undertaken, and if the hand of violence be laid upon us, we make our humble and confident appeal to the God whom we serve, and to the laws of the State, whose faithful citizens we are.

                                MRS. A. V. BARTHOLOMEW,
                                MRS. L. C. BUCKLES,
                                MRS. E. SKINNER,
                                MRS. A. GURNEY,
                                MRS. E. BALL,
                                                Executive Committee.

In behalf of the ladies engaged in the temperance movement.

The succeeding city election was hotly contested, but Mayor Skinner was re-elected. At the end of William Fox's term of office as City Treasurer, 1872-74, he was found to be a defaulter to a considerable amount. In 1876, the fire department of the city was organized, and there are now three small hand-engines with hose carts and ladders, one of the fire companies being composed of Normal students. The present Mayor of the city is the Hon. Thomas G. Lytle.

A word should be said about the early taverns and later hotels of the place. In the fall of 1836, Jimmy Laughlin had built the frame of the building now used by Hans Bornholdt as a meat market. It then stood on the alley opposite the court house, east side of public square. John Herr and Solomon Cheney bought and finished it, and kept tavern there from the spring of 1837 till the fall of 1838. This was the first tavern in the place. The American Eagle House was built at the southeast corner of Main and Franklin, by Abraham Hall, beginning in 1838. In 1839, he opened a tavern there. Herr & Cheney had kept a bar, and had some raspberry brandy which had been well tested by the La Porte lawyers, always good judges of things spirituous, and had been pronounced good. Abe Hall thought he must have some of the same when he opened out. When he and another returned from Michigan City with the first load for his bar, they having already well partaken, the barrel of raspberry brandy was taken from the wagon, a hole bored into it and a portion of the contents removed. A high (or low) time followed, and the barrel was forgotten. There were hogs in that back yard, sleeping in piles of shavings. They smelled the raspberry brandy, tasted it and pronounced it good. Their opinion coincided with that of the legal gentlemen aforesaid. After midnight, Herr & Cheney, then living in the house built by John Saylor, were awakened by strange noises from Hall's back yard, and, arising, they beheld a stranger sight. The hogs were cavorting, acting for all the world like any drunken hogs, only they were more amusing than the other kind. In the morning, out they came from the tavern with a tin pail for a fresh supply. The writ was returned non est inventus. The barrel was empty and the hogs were helplessly drunk and sick, and had nothing to taper off on. For awhile, the air was blue. In


that house subsequently David Oaks kept hotel, greatly improving the building. Then came John Dunning and others. There Austin R. Gould first kept public house in Valparaiso. In 1845, Elizabeth Harrison (from East Tennessee) built a tavern where the Central House now stands, the property now belonging to her descendants, and enlarged it in 1849. About 1855, A. R. Gould moved into it from the American Eagle, and kept it continuously till his death a few years ago, when he was succeeded by his estimable widow until the building was taken down in 1880. Mr. and Mrs. Gould became favorably known from New York to San Francisco. What a history is connected with every old hotel, and could the remains of that old house give up their secrets, what pathetic and amusing events they would disclose! Here is one of the latter: Less than a year before his death, the late Hon. D. D. Pratt, of Logansport, United States Senator and afterward Solicitor of Internal Revenue, told the writer the following:

It was in 1860. He had been at the National Republican Convention at Chicago which nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency. Mr. Pratt was a man of gigantic frame and stentorian voice. For these reasons he was chosen Secretary of the convention. Wearied with the labors of that convention, he came to Valparaiso, where, on the following day, he was to be pitted against some of the ablest legal talent in the northern part of the State in a case involving an Indian title to a large quantity of land. When the usual hour arrived, needing rest, he retired to bed and had his own thoughts, etc., for company. He was restless. The hour of midnight came and passed. Just opposite the hotel was a warehouse or grocery and a great pile of salt barrels, and thither at that hour came together all the cows of Valparaiso. There were white and black and brindled cows, dun-colored cows and spotted cows; there were cows with bells and cows with bellows, and they were having a regular picnic there. In the Gould House all was still. Even Mrs. Gould had gone to bed to get her accustomed four hours of rest. The music made by the cows was a sweet lullaby to the denizens of Valparaiso. They were used to it, and couldn't get along without it. But with Mr. Pratt the case was entirely different. He could get along without the ding-donging of the cow bells or their plaintive lowing. He couldn't get along at all with it; and it wouldn't stop. He got out of bed. He tried to "shoo" the cows away from his window, but they wouldn't "shoo." He came "down and out," sans hat, sans coat, sans trousers, and stood "in flowing robes of spotless white" on the sidewalk, under the bright moonlight, and tried to scare the "critters" away. They wouldn't scare. He hunted around for something to throw at them, but they stood their ground. At last he lost his temper, picked up a board and made a charge upon the enemy, and at


last they went in dire dismay with tails erect and a clamor that exceeded all they had made before, and then the dogs awoke to a sense of their duty, and from Frank Hunt's to Sam Campbell's, and from Sager's to Artil Bartholomew's, there was a simultaneous baying and barking. It was, so to speak, as though a certain place had broken loose. Mr. Pratt thought it was time for him to disappear from the scene, which he precipitately did. Hardly had he got into bed, when a cow bell was heard out at the salt barrels, and in a little time the cow carnival was renewed. But the exercise had been beneficial, the legal gentleman's nerves were quieted, and he was soon as oblivious to the noises as though he had been born and brought up in the place. He awoke in the morning refreshed, and, after a hot contest of several days, won his case.

The Gould House has passed away, and the Central has taken its place. The Excelsior Block, on the southeast corner of Mechanic and Washington, was built in 1858 -- originally designed for a hotel, but used for years for private families and a place where rooms were to let -- and at length served its original design by becoming the Winchell House, and now, since 1875, the Merchants' Hotel, with the genial T. T. Maulsby as landlord.

The first school taught in the township was on Section 7, by Miss Mary Hammond, and was in the summer of 1835; therefore, before the county or township organizations, and when Valparaiso was yet a wilderness. The first school taught in the village was, as we have seen, by Masters, and in 1837. The first lady teacher in the village was Miss Eldred, a sister of Mrs. Ruel Starr. The schoolhouse was a very diminutive building, which Dr. Ball had erected on the rear end of his lot, and which was subsequently moved to Lot 1, Block 18, and many will remember having seen it long used as a woodhouse on Dr. Ball's residence lot, and fronting on Jefferson street. The public records, in regard to school matters, are in such condition that it is impossible by them to trace the history of the organization of the districts, the names of teachers, the wages, etc., and tradition in regard to such things is an uncertain quantity. But it appears in the proceedings of the County Commissioners that on the 10th of June, 1841, they sold to the Trustees of School District No. 1, Lot 8 in Block 14, present residence of David Jones, for $5, for the purpose of securing the erection of a permanent school building in that district. The order was rescinded the following day, and another order passed to sell a lot equally eligible for the same purpose and on the same terms. Harvey E. Ball, of Lake County, and Sylvester W. Smith, were afterward teachers in that same little building on Dr. Ball's lot. Later, the Rev. James C. Brown opened a school for young ladies on Lot 3, Block 19, which was taught by himself, by Rev. W. M. Blackburn,


and lastly by S. L. Bartholomew. In 1849, the County Seminary was built on Jefferson street and Monroe, north side, Outlot No. 1. Ashley L. Peirce once taught school there. In 1857, through some carelessness, it was burned to the ground. The following year, Ashley L. Peirce opened a school with Rev. Horace Foot as Assistant, nearly opposite the present residence of A. V. Bartholomew. In 1859, the Methodists began the erection of the Valparaiso Male and Female College, the main building of the present Normal School. The first term of the college was opened September 21, 1859, under the Presidency of Rev. C. N. Sims, since widely known as an eloquent preacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The attendance of students the first year was 157. Other teachers in the school were F. D. Carley, Miss Moore, Mrs. Loomis and Mrs. Hall. The school was continued with a fine patronage, under several presidents. In 1867, the east wing of the building was erected. The building, however, was a little too far from the center of population to attract all the local patronage which it might otherwise have enjoyed, and when the public schools were opened in the present large building, it was deemed inexpedient to continue the V. M. & F. C, but it had, in the twelve years of its active existence, done a good work. Shortly after the inception of this enterprise, the Presbyterians of the place organized the Valparaiso Collegiate Institute, purchased the grounds now pertaining to the public school buildings, and on the 16th of April, 1861, opened the school with Rev. S. C. Logan, Principal, and H. A. Newell, Assistant. As soon as the institute building was finished, the school was moved into it, and continued until the sale of the buildings and grounds to the city. In the year 1864, Benjamin Wilcox became connected with it as principal. James McFetrich and Miss Sophie B. Loring were assistants. These all remained in the school while it continued. After the sale of the property to the city, Mr. Wilcox went to South Bend, where he became Principal of the High School, and continued in that relation till his death, which occurred some years after. He was a teacher of long experience, and has never been excelled by any in the place. The necessity for the erection of the present public school buildings was manifest and pressing. The only buildings in the place for that purpose were four small schoolhouses, capable of accommodating in the aggregate not more than 240 pupils. On two occasions, it became almost a matter of necessity on the part of the Trustees to avail themselves of the room afforded by the Roman Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian school buildings by hiring the teachers of those schools; so that while they went on without any change of administration or influence, they were supported out of the public school fund. Technically, perhaps, this was done according to law, but in violation of its spirit. The schools under the present graded system


were organized in 1871, with an enrollment of about 400. This included a number of German children, who were afterward taken out and sent to the Lutheran school. For the school year of 1878 and 1879, the total enrollment was 720, since which time there has been but little increase in the attendance. In 1881 and 1882, the enrollment reached 742, but owing to the prevalence of epidemics the attendance maintained was only 466. Number of teachers the first year, 10; present number, 15. A curious phenomenon occurred in connection with this graded school, namely, the accumulation of a surplus tuition fund, which, in the space of three years, amounted to about $15,000, and that without the levying of any special tuition tax. Inquiry into the cause of so strange an accumulation of funds led to the conclusion that the enumerator had probably, by some oversight, taken the names of the children from abroad, who were attending the normal school. It is now understood that such mistakes will be carefully guarded against hereafter, the custody of so much money causing no little perplexity to the Board. Rev. M. O'Reilly has also greatly encouraged the education of the Roman Catholic children, and has been very successful in building up schools in connection with his church. St. Paul's Academy and the school under the care of the Sisters of Providence are each attracting an annually increasing number of students. The buildings are favorably located on the southeast corner of Outlot No. 20.

The German Lutherans have also given attention to the education of their children, as will elsewhere appear.

The Normal School deserves a more extended mention, not only because of its extent, but on account of its influence upon the prosperity of Valparaiso and the surrounding country. It was established by Mr. H. B. Brown, who was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio, and attended the common schools, where his parents resided, until he was fifteen years of age, and then successively more advanced schools at Fremont and Delaware until he was twenty-one years of age, the winter months being spent in teaching. He afterward spent two years in attendance on the school at Lebanon, Ohio. After leaving Lebanon, he spent two years as a teacher in the North Western Normal School at Republic, Ohio. In June, 1873, having heard of the vacant buildings of the V. M. & F. C, at Valparaiso, he conceived the idea of starting a school of his own, and having made arrangements for the occupancy of the buildings, he opened his school on the 16th of September of that year with thirty-five students in attendance, thirteen of whom had come with him from Ohio. Mr. Brown alone had any idea of the vast results that were to follow his taking that step, and they have even exceeded his own great expectations, but in his mind he had conceived the plan upon which he has ever since


[Illustration of suburban stock farm and residence of Albert Hankins, Porter Tp. Porter Co. Ind.]




carried forward his undertaking. When as yet the number in attendance was no more than 200, he informed the writer of his expectation that in a few years the number would reach 1,000, and would probably not go beyond that. The first teachers were H. B. Brown, Miss Mantie E. Baldwin, M. E. Bogarte, B. F. Perrine and Ida Hutchison. Mr. Perrine had charge of the boarding department. The plan of Mr. Brown seems to have comprehended these things: 1. By reducing expenses of all kinds -- tuition, board, room rent, fuel, books, etc., to the lowest possible figure, to make an education possible to thousands who otherwise would be practically debarred from it for want of means. 2. By hard work on his own part and that of his teachers to impart to the instruction given that quality which would secure for the school a good reputation, and at the same time reduce the number of salaries. There have been times when nearly all the teachers were engaged with their classes ten hours daily. It was more economical to pay one teacher $1,500 per annum for teaching ten hours, than it would have been to pay three teachers $800 each for teaching three hours. 3. By the free investment of money in advertising to let everybody who would be likely to attend school know that there was a school here and the advantages it offered. His plan was not to depend upon newspaper advertising alone, but especially upon sending circulars direct to such persons as were engaged in teaching in the common schools. This was done at very great expense, but the result has shown that the money was wisely invested. 4. By requiring hard work on the part of the students to accomplish the greatest amount in the shortest time. 5. To afford facilities by which young men and women could receive a practical training for various departments of business. With this in view, special attention has been given to the classes for training teachers, to the commercial department, and to instruction in telegraphy, phonography and penmanship. 6. To govern the school by making it a working school. Students have no time for hazing who must put in six or eight hours a day in hard study, besides their recitations, or fall irretrievably behind. There has never been a rebellion in the school, though Mr. Brown is an autocrat. It should also be mentioned that arrangements are such that students can advantageously enter at any time and fall right to work like the hands in a factory, and it is also understood to be their privilege to leave at any time when their needs may require it to engage in teaching or other employments. From these ideas, energetically carried out, there has grown up a school which has not only attracted students from the most distant parts of the country, but has set other educators to inquiring into the secret of its remarkable success. The number of students went up by hundreds every year, until it became a matter of the utmost difficulty to


find room for them in the town. Many of the most wealthy citizens for a time incommoded themselves and opened their homes for the reception of students that none might be turned away, and the best feeling has always prevailed between the students and the citizens. The facilities for rooming and boarding students is now such that it is safe to say that if 2,500 should present themselves at once, it would be much easier to provide for them than it was to provide for 800 a few years ago. The school is a private enterprise, and not under the patronage of the State, nor of any denomination. Until 1880, it was the sole property of Mr. Brown, since which time Prof. O. P. Kinsey has been jointly interested with him in it. There was a time when Mr. Brown suffered severe financial embarrassment. The increasing attendance made necessary a very large outlay for the erection of buildings and the purchase of apparatus, in addition to the constant, heavy drain of the system of advertising adopted. At that time, according to the provisions of the State law, he received aid from the county to the amount of $10,000, and the city bought from him the college buildings for $12,000, giving him the privilege of redeeming the same in ten years without interest. Never was money more profitably invested by the county or city. It would be impossible to estimate the benefit which the college has been to the city and surrounding country in a pecuniary point of view. To it the present prosperity of Valparaiso is largely due. The erection of buildings on college hill has given constant employment to a large number of workmen, and their furnishing has afforded a large trade to dealers in furniture, hardware, carpets, etc. The patronage of the grocers, bakers and meat markets has been vastly increased by the boarding houses on the hill. The average number of students has been 800 per term since the beginning, and they spend in the place an average of $50 per term, or at the rate of $200,000 per annum, which, for the nine years, would foot up a grand total of $1,800,000. It is estimated that not less than 200 buildings have been erected in consequence of the location of the college here, the aggregate value of which is very large. Nor has the college been less a source of prosperity to the surrounding country. The demand for eggs, meats, butter, vegetables, wood, etc., has been such that much of the time the market has been bare, and the prices have always kept up to rate highly advantageous to the producers. In addition to the teachers mentioned, there have been W. A. Yohn, Lillian Bogarte, Annie McAlilly, Lodema E. Ward, C. I. Ingerson, J. W. Holcombe, G. Bloch, C. K. Bitters, C. W. Boucher, Lizzie Boucher, H. N. Carver, C. L. Gregory, A. A. Southworth, Mrs. A. A. Southworth, R. A. Heritage, O. P. Kinsey, Sarah Kinsey, H. A. Gillett, Mark L. De Motte, Will F. Strong, G. A. Dodge, G. L. Durand, M. G. Kimmel, U. J. Hoffman, W. J.


Bell, E. K. Isaacs, Frank Nihart. The college buildings are now valued at $75,000. An annual sum is appropriated from the profits of the institution for a library and reading room for the use of the students. Mr. Brown has no wife as yet except the college; but it is understood that several young ladies would be willing to accept the vacant situation if an offer were made them. The enrollment for the spring term in 1880 was 2,143 students.

In Centre Township there are, in addition to the schools in Valparaiso, nine districts. The amount paid teachers in these schools in the year 1860-61, was $546.84; for expenses including repairs, $163.96; for the year ending September, 1881, the tuition fund was $1,825; special school, $871.36. In each of these districts, school is kept nine months in the year; wages to teachers, $25 per month for the spring and fall terms, and $85 for winter.

From the records in the Clerk's office, it appears that marriages were solemnized in the county by not less than four ministers of the Gospel during the year 1836. It has been generally said that the Rev. Alpheus French, a Baptist minister, preached the first sermon in Valparaiso. But the writer has been informed, by one who should know, that, as early as 1835 or 1836, a Baptist Church was organized in the township by the Rev. Asahel Neal, of which Benjamin Saylor and wife and a Mr. Billings and wife were members; and further, that this organization, and perhaps another, lapsed before the present organization of the Baptist Church was effected. It is claimed for Mr. Neal that he also preached the first sermon in Valparaiso, the service being held in the house of William Eaton. Two Methodist ministers were in the county in 1836, Rev. Cyrus Spurlock, County Recorder and a resident of Portersville, and Rev. Stephen Jones. Rev. W. K. Talbott, a Presbyterian, was also a resident of Centre Township. The Rev. Alpheus French was well advanced in years when he came to this county. He was the father of Mrs. Hatch, and grandfather of Mrs. Orson Starr, of this place. He was born in 1769 or 1770, and lived to be more than ninety. The stone that marks his grave may be seen on the east side of the carriageway in the old cemetery.

The First Baptist Church was organized June 10, 1837. Constituent members, John Bartholomew, Drusilla Bartholomew, Edmond Billings, James Witham, John Robinson, Rebecca Witham, Charity Billings, Warner Pierce, Adelia Pierce and three others. First Deacons -- John Robinson and John Bartholomew. First Clerk -- Jacob C. White. Trustees -- Warren Pierce and James Witham. The name was changed to First Baptist Church of Valparaiso, February 8, 1840. First Pastor -- Elder French. Served five years. Second Pastor -- H. S. Orton.


Third Pastor -- W. T. Bly, chosen in 1844, and served three years. Elder A, Nicheron succeeded Elder Bly, and served the church five years. Durinor his ministry the former church was built at a cost of $2,200. It was dedicated March 17, 1853. Elder Harry Smith became Pastor in 1854, and continued six years. Elder G. T. Brayton succeeded Elder Smith in the pastorate from March 11, 1860, to March 11, 1861. Elder J. D. Coe succeeded Elder Brayton from May 12, 1861, to May 12, 1862, one year; Elder I. M. Maxwell, from November 8, 1862, to July 17, 1864, one year and eight months; Elder M. T. Lamb, from 1864 to 1865, about one year; Elder R. H. Tozer, December 9, 1865, to February 18, 1866, three months; M. T. Lamb, from 1866, to July 13, 1867, about one year; Elder Otis Saxton, from October 12, 1867, to October 1, 1868; Elder Harper, from October 10, 1868, to about May, 1860; Elder W. A. Caplinger, from 1870 to August 10, 1872, two years and six months; Elder W. A. Clark, from April 1, 1872, to December 1, 1864, one year and nine months; from December 1, 1874, to October 1, 1875, the church was without a pastor; Elder E. S. Riley entered upon his pastorate October 1, 1875, and is still the pastor; Elder Harry Smith's pastorate was very prosperous. Under the ministry of Elder Maxwell, the church was prosperous. During this time the church purchased a bell, was free from debt, and increased in membership. During Elder M. T. Lamb's ministry, fifty were added to the membership. During W. A. Clark's pastorate the parsonage was built at an expense, with the chapel, of $2,000.

During the present pastorate, which commenced October 1, 1875, 193 have been added to the church, and the present membership is 202. During this time, the present bell was purchased at a cost of $175, and the present house has been built at a cost of $7,000. The value of the present church property is about $12,000. At this time, the church's indebtedness is about $1,000, with a reliable subscription, which is now being collected, which equals this amount. By the 5th of October, at the annual meeting, it is expected to have the larger part of this collected. The church has enjoyed great harmony in its work during the entire time of the present pastorate, and closes the seventh year with brighter prospects than at any former period of its history.

From 1835 to 1844, the territory of Porter and Lake Counties was included in one pastoral charge, called first Deep River Mission, then Kankakee Mission, and afterward Valparaiso Circuit. It was served by Revs. Richard Hargrave, Aaron Wood, William H, Goode, Charles M. Holliday, John Daniel and John L. Smith, Presiding Elders; and Stephen Jones, Jacob Colclazer, Hawley B. Beers, Samuel K. Young, William J. Forbes, Isaac M. Stagg, William F. Wheeler, Wade Posey and


Warren Griffith as pastors. In the fall of 1844, Lake County was set off into a new charge, and Valparaiso Circuit was confined to Porter County, and remained so until the fall of 1852, when Valparaiso was set off as a separate pastoral charge. During this time it was served by C. M. Holliday, J. Daniel and J. L. Smith as Presiding Elders, and J. Cozad, T. C. Hackney, S. T. Cooper, William Palmer, W. G. Stonix, J. G. D. Pettijohn, L. B. Kent, Franklin Taylor, David Dunham, Abram Cary and Samuel Godfrey, as pastors.

The preaching places were Valparaiso, Salt Creek or Gosset's Chapel, Twenty-mile Grove, Indian Town (now Hebron), Melvin's, Lee's, White's and Pennock's. The appointments increased until, when the station was set off, they numbered fourteen, namely, Valparaiso, Morgan Prairie, Kankakee, Ohio, Hanna's Mill, City West, Jackson Centre, Griffith's Chapel, Horse Prairie, Hebron, Union Chapel, Twenty-Mile Grove, Salt Creek and Louis Pennocks'. In 1852, the station was organized, J. L. Smith, Presiding Elder, and David Crawford, pastor, who continued two years. Since the organization of the station, the following Presiding Elders have served the district, sometimes called La Porte, and at other times Valparaiso District: J. L. Smith, W. Graham, B. Winans, James Johnson, S. T. Cooper, W. Pt. Mikels, R. D. Utter and F. M. Pavey. The pastors have been D. Crawford, two years; A. Fellows, one; W. Hamilton, one; G. W. Stafford, two; S. T. Cooper, two; A. Gurney, one; B. W. Smith, one; C. A. Brooke, one; T. S. Webb, three; N. Green, two; G. M. Boyd, three; L C. Buckels, three; T. Meredith, two; W. Graham, two; N. L. Brakeman, three (he dying in the middle of his third year, and W. B. Stuts filled out the time); and G. M. Boyd, now in his second year. The first class in the city was organized in 1840, by W. J. Forbes, now a superannuate, and living here respected and loved as a Christian minister by all his neighbors. The only remaining member of that class is Mrs. Xenia Salyer, now advanced in years, but rich in faith and zealous in good works. The house of worship was commenced in 1848, under the pastorate of W. G. Stonix, and finished under the labors of J. G. D. Pettijohn, in 1849.

The same year a parsonage was purchased for $475, on the corner of Franklin and Monroe streets, but was after four years sold, and a new one erected in the rear of the lot on which the church now stands, at a cost of $900. Both church and parsonage have been enlarged and otherwise improved, and the charge is now one of the most desirable ones in the conference. From the commencement the members and congregation have done their full share in the benevolent work of the church, compared with other churches of equal strength financially, besides meeting their own expenses, which may be safely estimated for the last thirty years


as follows: Salaries, $21,000; incidentals, $4,000; benevolent claims, $4,000; church building, $4,500; parsonage and repairs, $2,500; Sunday school expenses, $2,500; add to this several thousand dollars donated to the college building now occupied by the Normal College. The number of the membership is now 245, and 20 probationers.

Previous to the winter of 1839-40, there had probably been several sermons by Presbyterian ministers in the county, and possibly in this township. But on the 4th day of December, 1839, Rev. James C. Brown, then a young man, and only a licentiate, began a ministry which lasted continuously for more than twenty years, by preaching a sermon in the second story of the court house, the text being Luke, x, 42. It was about Martha and Mary. Having in the meantime been ordained to the ministry, he in company with Rev. W. K. Marshall, of La Porte, organized the Presbyterian Church of Valparaiso, July 3, 1840, with ten members, viz.: James Blair, Isabel Blair and Elizabeth Martin, their daughter, Nancy Buel, Elizabeth Marshall, Bathsheba E. Hamell, Abby Salisbury, Mary E. Brown, Henry Battan and M. B. Crosby. James Blair and M. B. Crosby were elected Elders. Judge Blair has been dead many years. Mr. Crosby has been an active Elder in the church since the day of its organization, now more than forty years. Jeremiah Hamell was elected Trustee. In the fall or winter following, the Sabbath school was organized by Mrs. Brown, and a brother of the pastor, Hugh A. Brown. It was a union school of eighteen pupils, and embraced every child of suitable age in the neighborhood. The services were held in the court house till the spring of 1841. Then a house was hired for the purpose on the southeast corner of Lot 3, Block 19, where the church worshiped two years. In 1842, they purchased Lot 7, Block 13, but the Methodists having purchased the adjoining lot six months later and declining to make any other choice, it was deemed best to relinquish that, and a church was erected on the lot where Prof. Boucher's residence now is. The building was 35x45, and cost $750 in money, and a large amount of labor by pastor and people thrown in. It was not till 1849 that the pews and bell were furnished, though it was occupied from 1844. Numerous revivals attended the ministry of Dr. Brown, the most notable occurring in 1847 and 1854, Mr. Avery an evangelist assisting. Dr. Brown was a man of such piety, zeal, activity and self-denial as to make an impression never to be forgotten by those who knew him. His character may be judged from the fact that when the church was to be built, he shouldered his ax and went out to Bartholomew's woods with the rest of the people to cut and hew the timbers, and during the whole of his ministry, he not only taught in the Sabbath school and preached in Valparaiso morning and evening, but preached in


the afternoon at Tassinong, Salem, or Twenty-Mile Prairie. In 1857, the church building was moved to its present location on Lot 3, Block 18, the lot having been deeded to the church by Dr. Brown, and at the same time, twenty-five feet were added to its length, making it 35x70. Additions have since been made in the rear of a lecture-room, 24x31 feet, and of an infant-class room, 18x24 feet. At present, a subscription is in circulation for the building of a new church, and more than $8,000 has been pledged for the purpose. In 1867, the Lot 1, Block 4, with the dwelling on it was purchased for $2,500, to be used as a parson- age, and has since been improved. Dr. Brown closed his pastoral connection with the church September 4, 1860. In 1862, he was appointed Chaplain of the Forty-eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteers, and on the 14th of July of that year died in the hospital at Paducah, Ky. He had received during his twenty years ministry here and at Crown Point, Salem, Tassinong and Twenty-Mile Prairie, 475 members. He was succeeded as pastor by Rev. S. C. Logan, now of Scranton, Penn., October 14, 1860. His pastorate lasted through the trying scenes of the war. In July, 1865, he resigned. He was an able minister of the Word. He was succeeded on the 17th of December of that year by Robert Beer, the present pastor, whose ministry has lasted continuously from that time. During the pastorate of Dr. Logan, there were 134 additions to the church. From the beginning, much attention was given to Sunday school work. This department of labor was carried on most effectively under the superintendency of Hon. H. A. Gillett, which lasted from 1864 to 1877. From its organization to April 1, 1882, there have been received into the church a total membership on examination and by letter of 1,068. Of these, 459 have been received during the pastorate of Mr. Beer. Number of communicants at last annual report, 236. To April 1, 1882, the total amount raised for congregational purposes was $53,459. There are no reports of amounts paid for congregational purposes for the first ten years. These would doubtless increase the total to more than $58,000. The benevolent contributions of the church have been as follows: Home Missions, $1,916; Foreign Missions, $4,292; Education, $6,311; Publication, $300; Church erection, $688; Ministerial relief, $413; Freedmen, $329; Miscellaneous, $4,311. Total benevolent, $18,560. Add Congregational, $58,000, and the grand total is $76,560. Missionary societies have been organized as follows: Women's Foreign Mission Aid Society, 1871; Children's Mission Band, 1874; Women's Home Missionary Society, 1878.

Any attempt to incorporate even a brief outline of the history of the Catholic Church in Porter, in a general history of the county, must be largely defective. The writer, therefore, confines himself to Valparaiso


and those places at any time depending on it for Catholic services. St. Paul's Church, Valparaiso, received its name through Rev. Father Gillen, C. S. C, in honor of the great apostle of the Gentiles. The Holy Sacrifice of mass was first offered in or about Valparaiso, according to the most probable statements, very close to the center of the northwest quarter of Section 15, Township 35, near where the residence of Mr. P. T. Clifford now stands. The name of the priest is not remembered. For several years after, a few Catholics were found to be in Valparaiso. They were occasionally attended by the priests of the society of the Holy Cross, Notre Dame, Ind. Amongst the names of clergymen still remembered by older residents, are those of Father Curley, C. S. C, Father Cointet, C. S. C, Father Kilroy, C. S. C, and Father Paul Gillen, C. S. C. Through Father Paul, as the people called him, St. Paul's Church building was begun and partially erected.

The "groves were God's first temples," and they, too. served for the first Catholic Church near Valparaiso. The first class of children prepared for Holy Communion was instructed by Father Paul, under the large oak trees then standing on what is now Emmettsburg. Some of the members of that class still reside in Valparaiso.

When the State of Indiana was divided by cutting off the diocese of Fort Wayne from that of Vincennes, Valparaiso naturally fell in the diocese of Fort Wayne.

Immediately the newly appointed Bishop of Fort Wayne, Right Rev. J. H. Luers, D. D., attempted to locate a resident pastor in Valparaiso. We are told that the first resident pastor was Rev. Father Clarke, who remained here but a few days. After him came Rev. George Hamilton, who was one of the ablest priests ever in this diocese. He remained but a short time; Valparaiso was then unable to afford board and lodging to a resident pastor. A large number of Catholics in and about the place, about this time, were composed of that thoughtless, wild class of persons who follow public works. Others, more prudent and wise, remained, purchased lands, and thus became the founders of what will yet be one of the best Catholic congregations in the State.

We next hear of Father John Force, who died here. He was a man of rare literary ability, and an able preacher, but did not live long enough to organize a congregation; after him came Rev. A. Botti. This priest was a man of great learning, but totally unfit to be a pastor. The natural consequences were troubles upon troubles. Unfortunately the records of the Porter County Circuit Court show more of the history of the church during his administration than the records of the church. Father Botti was constantly in "hot water" with his people, and at length with his bishop. We are glad to learn that in time he saw his mistakes. He


secured the bishop's pardon, and died, we hope a peaceful death, in the Sisters' Hospital in Fort Wayne.

After Father Botti, the present pastor, Rev. M. O'Reilly, was sent here immediataly from college, after his ordination to the priesthood. For twenty years he has presided over the constantly growing congregation of Saint Paul's; with his advent here the organized congregation of Saint Paul's properly begins. When Father O'Reilly came to Valparaiso, he found the affairs of the Catholic Church in the worst state possible -- the church, poor as it was, closed under an injunction; law suits pending on every hand; debts unlimited to be paid; a bitter division of sentiment amongst the members of the congregation; no pastoral residence; no school for the youth. In a word, nothing that could give the least encouragement toward the important work of organizing a congregation.

However, in the face of all these difficulties he went to work. He walked through the deep snows of January, 1863, from house to house, and told the people as far as he could find them, that he was here to be their resident priest, and that he was determined to stay. He rented "Hughart's Hall," now the upper story of Wilson's hardware store, for $2 per Sunday. Here he celebrated mass on an extemporized altar, preached and taught the few children he could gather together. For mass on week days he went from house to house, as people who knew his wants might invite him. After a very unpleasant series of law-suits, on Easter Sunday, 1863, he first secured the use of the old church.

Before this building was ever finished, it was allowed to run into partial decay. The first step was to repair it, so that it could be used. As soon as the church was rendered habitable, the pastor at once opened a day school in it. This was the beginning of the present St. Paul's Schools, which from that time to the present were never closed one single day of the scholastic year. As soon as Father O'Reilly saw the possibility of establishing a congregation, he quietly purchased an acre of land in Outlot No. 20, where he determined to erect all future buildings for the use of the congregation. In due time, he erected St. Paul's School without any encouragement, as he received direct donations for that purpose only the small sum of $35. The building cost at that time about $8,000, as it was built during the time of the war of the rebellion, when gold carried its highest premium. The school was immediately opened with three teachers. During this time, Father O'Reilly lived in different rented houses, with great inconvenience, often quite far from the church and schools. He now determined to erect a pastoral residence. This was done with much labor on his part, but with far more assistance from the congregation. To continue the schools with secular teachers,


as a larger number were required, was found to be very expensive, so he took steps to secure the services of a religious order of teachers, who could not only serve the congregation at less expense, but also teach music, drawing, painting and all styles of needlework. To this end, he secured the Sisters of Providence; but first he was obliged to provide a dwelling house for them. This was done with very liberal assistance on the part of the congregation. The Sisters opened school on the first Monday of September, 1872. As the schools increased, further improvements were required. A music hall was soon erected. The school is now conducted in. four departments and five divisions, requiring the services of six teachers. The pupils number about 250. No school in Porter County has sent out a larger number of good teachers, for its number of pupils enrolled, than St. Paul's. Besides the buildings erected, a large parish bell and a very fine pipe organ have been secured. During the time of Father O'Reilly's pastorate, he has baptized about 1,700 persons in his congregation. The total number of communions administered in St. Paul's Church is about 5,500 per annum. The regular Easter communions are about 700, which indicates that the Catholic population of the congregation is about 2,100 souls.

The congregation is composed of several nationalities -- Irish, Americans, German, French, English and Polanders. All live in harmony, and their children are educated together in St. Paul's Schools. Steps were begun in 1880 to erect a new church. The plans already approved show that the church will be Gothic, 153 feet long, ninety-five feet transept and sixty-five feet nave, with a steeple 198 feet high. The building to be of hard brick trimmed with cut stone. In a few years, this beautiful building will be completed, and be an ornament to Valparaiso.

St. Paul's cemetery, purchased from the city of Valparaiso in 1872, and consecrated by the present Bishop of Fort Wayne, Rt. Rev. J. Dwenger, D. D., in the same year, is the best laid out and handsomest cemetery in the county. The following places received the services of the pastors of St. Paul's, chiefly in the beginning of their organization as congregations, i. e., Plymouth, Chesterton, Hobart, Pierceton, La Crosse, Lake Station, Walkerton, Otis, Bourbon and Hebron. These places have now churches. Besides, several small stations have been at some time attended from here -- such as Morgan, Cassello, Marshall Grove, Wheeler, Tollestone, Clarke Station and Horse Prairie. Regular services have been discontinued at present in these places. At present, the following places are attended from Valparaiso, i. e., Westville, Kouts' Station, Wanatah, Wellsboro, Hanna Station, Whiting, Edgmore, and such other places wherein one or more Catholic families may be found.

The organized societies of the congregation are: The Altar Ladies' Society, eighty members; Young Ladies' Sodality, 125 members; Young


Men's Sodality, fifty members; Holy Angel's Society, sixty members, and Confirmation Sodality, 160 members. The secular societies are: The Columbian Society, thirty members, and St. Paul's Cornet Band, fifteen members.

The Christian Church was permanently organized in Valparaiso in 1847, by Peter T. Russell, with about eight members, although there was preaching before by Lewis Comer and others, but no organization. Since that time, the church continued to meet on every Lord's Day, with few exceptions. The meetings, for a time, were held in private or hired rooms, sometimes in the court house, and several years in the first brick schoolhouse built in the town, purchased by one of the brethren, and used for that purpose till it became unfit. Then the church rented a house built by the Germans, and occupied it about two years, and in 1874 built the brick house which the church now occupies. The house and lot cost $3,200. The preachers have been P. T. Russell, Lewis Comer, Charles Blackman, W. W. Jones, W. Selmser, Lemuel Shortridge, R, C. Johnston, W. R. Lowe, I. H. Edwards, H. B. Davis and others. The church now numbers 120 members.

In the year 1852, the first Germans settled at Valparaiso. Their number increased rapidly to 1856, until in about 1865 there were about fifty families of Germans in and around Valparaiso, the most of whom were Lutherans. In 1862, Mr. W. Jahn came from Holstein, and was engaged by the Germans as their pastor. A division occurred in the congregation, a number going to the Reformed Church, but a respectable congregation remained Lutheran, and employed Rev. J. P. Beyer pastor to fully organize the church. Beyer came on, and after four months (during which time he preached here, and also, several times, Rev. Tramm, from La Porte) -- the Lutheran congregation sent a call to Rev. C. Meyer, in Bainbridge, Mich. Having accepted the call, Rev. Meyer arrived in November, 1864. Until 1865, the services were held in a rented schoolhouse. Then a frame building was erected on the northwest corner of Pink and Academy streets, to be used for services and school also. In 1872, after Rev. Meyer had resigned, Rev. W. J. B. Lange, at that time in Defiance, Ohio, received a call, and arrived in August, 1872, and resides with the congregation up to the present time. It is customary with the Synod of Missouri, Ohio and other States, to which both the before-named ministers belong, to pay special attention to parochial schools in every congregation. In conformity with this, Rev. C. Meyer started a school soon after his arrival, of which he was the teacher himself for three years. By that time, Mr. C. Peters, who had finished his studies in the Teachers' Seminary, at Addison, Ill., took charge of the school, which numbers at present 130 scholars. As the


number of members increased every year, and the school enlarged also, the congregation found it necessary to provide themselves with more room and convenience in their church, so they intended to buy a lot and build a new church, when an offer was made to them to buy the Unitarian Church, which was to be sold on Sheriff's sale. This was done in 1880, so they have a pleasantly situated, newly refitted church for services only, while the former frame church is exclusively used for a schoolhouse.
Last year the congregation also bought the dwelling house of Mrs. Urbahns for their minister, which is on the same lot with the church. At present the congregation numbers about eighty families which are members, and about fifty more as guests.

At the present time, there is no organization of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the township or county, but on the 2d of June, 1861, Bishop Upfold was present at the organization of a church, services having been held every other Sabbath for some time previous. The name of the organization was the "Church of the Holy Communion." The membership was small, and during the changes caused by the war and the visitations of death, it soon became extinct. Messrs. Febles and Thompson, lawyers, with their wives, were among the members. Subsequently, as appears from the history of the Lutheran Church, elsewhere given, an effort was made to organize a German Episcopal Church. This effort was subsequently continued as late as 1865-66, but on the occasion of a visit from Assistant Bishop Talbott, in the winter of 1866-67, for the purpose of organizing the church, he deemed it not advisable to do so.

For a short time, there was also a German Reformed Church, whose services were held in the building now owned and occupied by the Lutherans, but they discontinued their efforts about 1871, and all the Germans who attend church are now connected with the Lutheran organization, except such as are found in the German Methodists, an organization which has existed here for more than twenty years, and which has a commodious church building and a good parsonage.

The Unitarians formed an organization in 1872, and bought the building of the Reformed Church. They have been ministered to by Revs. Powell, Carson Parker and others; but at present are not active, and the church building is owned by the Lutherans.

There is also a Reformed Mennonite Church, which was organized in 1850. Ten years ago or more, they purchased one of the brick school-houses owned by the city and located in Powell's Addition, where services are held every other Sabbath, and the Lord's Supper is administered twice a year. Their present membership is about thirty. They have no resident pastor.

Since 1878, there has been an assembly calling themselves Believers,


or Brethren, and commonly known as Plymouth Brethren, who hold services every Sabbath morning and evening, their meetings being held at present in a room in the third story of the store building owned by S. S. Skinner, on Main street.

It is forty-eight years since the history of the township under its white inhabitants began. Since that time there has been advance all over the Christian world. It would be impossible to note these as they have taken place, in the space allotted. The majority of the original settlers are now in their graves, and the remainder are hastening on to that end. Many that have been born here since 1835, have grown up through boyhood and maidenhood to be the staid members of society. These joyous days of youth were passed here before the day of railroads and telephones. But they enjoyed life nevertheless. Some amusing tales are told, by those who participated in them, of merry doings that were transacted by some who are not yet too grave to enjoy a good laugh at the practical jokes then played upon them. Along time ago Valparaiso was frequently visited by an apostle of phrenology, a very worthy man, and, like all phrenologists, he was of imperturbable good nature and boundless self-complacency. On one occasion he said, "Gentlemen, there have been only three great heads in America." "Whose were they?" "One was Benjamin Franklin, and the second was Daniel Webster." "And whose was the third?" "Gentlemen" (with a bow) "modesty forbids me to say." Once the boys arranged with him to give a lecture on phrenology in the old brick schoolhouse that stood just east of Mrs. Hamell's residence. The price of admittance was one shilling. Mexican shillings, well worn, were then in circulation. A tinner was kept busy coining shillings that afternoon. In the evening the Professor was at the door, hat in hand, to take in the money. The house would scarcely hold the audience. At length the Professor came to the desk, turned over the hat and took a look at his receipts. He picked up one shilling and looked at it and felt it, and then another and another. He surveyed the pile, and then exclaimed, "Gentlemen, close that door! There's been a fraud committed here!" In a quarter of a minute the Professor was alone with his tin shillings to sigh over "man's inhumanity to man." Another time he was to lecture at Malone's Schoolhouse, and the boys were in force with a supply of cigars. He was soon almost invisible amid the cloud of smoke, and being an anti-tobacconist he broke for the door, for once almost losing his urbanity. We have among us a venerable banker and capitalist, who, by "accommodatin" his friends and building houses to rent, has made a kind of local Astor of himself. He came here thirty years ago, "from the East," you know, and the boys took especial pains to show him round. He heard them tell wonderful stories about catching snipe, and was interested. He


wanted to catch some. They took him out about two miles to some low grounds through which ran a ditch. There were not less than a score in the crowd. As they approached the place where one of the number had seen "an acre and a half of snipe" that morning, they all provided themselves with clubs for driving snipe. The novice was unanimously chosen to hold the bag. This he declined to do on account of his not being acquainted with the kind of snipe that grew in this country, but agreed to hold it the second time. Another was appointed in his place to first hold the bag, and he, being urged to provide himself with a club for driving snipe, went into a thicket to cut one, and as soon as he was hid from view, lit out for town leaving them to finish the game. He arrived in town about an hour before the rest, and occupied a good position from which he could hear their comments on the expedition. The same banker once started an oyster saloon which was largely patronized by the "Jeunesse doree" of Valparaiso, and their patronage resulted largely to his profit. If you wish to know how, ask him, for he enjoys telling it.



Transcribed by Steven R. Shook, February 2012


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