History of Porter County, 1882County history published by F. A. Battey and Company . . . .

Source Citation:
Goodspeed, Weston A., and Charles Blanchard. 1882. Counties of Lake and Porter, Indiana: Historical and Biographical. Chicago, Illinois: F. A. Battey and Company. 771 p.







THE territory comprised in this county has been, within historic times at least, the scene of no invasions, sieges or battles. Its settlement having been begun nearly fifty years after the close of the war of the Revolution, not many of the survivors of that war could be expected to find homes or end their days here. So far as known to the writer, the only soldiers of the war of Independence who have ever resided in the county were Henry Battan and Joseph Jones. Of the personal history of these but little is now known. The name of the former is found on the poll books of an election held at City West not long after the organization of the county, from which it is inferred that he was a resident of Westchester Township at the time. From the records of the Presbyterian Church of Valparaiso, it appears that he was received as a member of that church at its organization, on the 3d of July, 1840, and upon evidence of his good standing in the Presbyterian Church in the State of Virginia. Several of the old citizens of Valparaiso remember him as a Revolutionary pensioner residing here with a daughter, but have no recollection of what he may have said as to his services. From the records of the same church, it appears that he died on the 1st of February, 1845. His pastor, Rev. Dr. Brown, in an anniversary sermon preached in November, 1859, speaks of him as "Old Father Battan, at once a soldier of the country and of the cross. At ninety-four he gained the victory and the crown."

Of Joseph Jones only these things are known, viz., that before coming to this county he had resided for some time in Holmes County, Ohio; that he was married to the grandmother of the present Mayor of Valparaiso, the Hon. Thomas G. Lytle; that in the spring of the year 1841, he removed to this county and settled at Boone Grove; that after a few years he died at a very advanced age and was buried in the Cornell Graveyard, where his place of repose is unmarked by any monument.

Mrs. Susannah Fifield, the widow of a Revolutionary soldier, came to this county from Enfield, N. H. The writer is able to state only this,


that she was received by letter into the Presbyterian Church of this place August 22, 1852, and that her pastor says of her in 1858: "Out of her Revolutionary pension, she annually gave me $10 for Foreign Missions. A godly woman, at an advanced age, she recently crossed over Jordan."

Isaac Cornell and Robert Folsom, soldiers of the war of 1812, were buried in the Cornell Graveyard. John Curtis, who went from the State of New York as a farrier in the same war, came to this county in 1836, settled near Wheeler, and died there in 1865. Eliphalet D. Curtis, another soldier of that war, enlisted in New York, came to this county in 1838, settled near Porter Cross Roads, and died in the spring of 1865. Myron Powell enlisted in Vermont, moved subsequently to the Western Reserve in Ohio, came to Porter County, Ind., and died here in 1865. The only soldiers of the Black Hawk war who ever resided in this county, as far as learned, were Ruel Starr and James M. Buel, the former now deceased, the latter is a resident of Chicago.

No company was organized in this county to serve in the Mexican war, but Joseph P. Smith, of Lake County, at the time holding a county office, resigned and enlisted a company to serve in 1846. After the expiration of their term of service, they re-enlisted to serve from 1847 to 1848. About thirty persons from Porter County enlisted in that company, among whom were William Unruh, Ezra Wilcox, Peter Musselman, two men named Aley, two named Patterson, Mr. Brown, Mr. Risden, Mr. Preston, Mr. Hopkins and Mr. Wells. It is believed that the only survivors of that company, now in the county, are William Unruh, of Tassinong, and Jacob Aley, of Hebron. It was the duty of this company, while in Mexico, to guard wagon trains, and the climate proved to be very deadly in its influence upon them, as out of 119 men who went out, only thirty-six returned. In addition to these, Samuel Meekam, now of Valparaiso, Clinton Frazier, a man named Briggs, an-other named Hesser, and still others from this county, were soldiers in that war, but in what organization they went out is not known.

The War of the Rebellion. -- The political campaign of 1860 waxed warm in this county. The great majority of the Democrats voted for Mr. Douglas, though there were some votes cast for Breckenridge. On the one hand it was charged upon the Republicans that they were responsible for all the dangers that threatened the country, and on the other that the Democrats were in sympathy with Southern secessionists. In reality, until the Southern States began to pass their ordinances of secession, none really believed that the issues between the two sections of the country were to be tried upon the field of battle, much less that four years of blood and horror were soon to follow. After the election of Lincoln, when the alarm had become general at the threatened insurrection


in the South, when conservative men of the North and South were endeavoring to avert the calamities of war by timely compromise, the general opinion of the Republicans in this part of the country, as evinced by the press, was decidedly against any compromise which might bind more closely the fetters of the slave or recognize the institution of slavery as National in its character. The Republic of that day, then published in Valparaiso, was very decided in opposition to the Crittenden and all other compromises, the tendency of which would be to surrender any vantage-ground that had hitherto been gained in rescuing territory from the domination of the peculiar institution. All who are old enough can remember the peculiar feelings which prevailed at that time. There was a class of politicians at the South called fire-eaters. They had always been given to bluster and hifalutin. The people of the North had become accustomed to threats of the dissolution of the Union, and they had listened to that kind of talk until they supposed it might go on ad infinitum, and nothing ever come of it. Yet things were certainly looking more serious than ever before. South Carolina had seceded. Mississippi had seceded. It looked as though all the cotton States would go out. They did go out, one after another, in rapid succession. Men who had been elected to the legislatures of their several States as Union men were either persuaded or terrified into voting for secession. Twiggs proved a traitor and turned over his forces so far as he could to the cause of disunion. Pensacola and Mobile, with their fortifications, fell into rebel hands. But still the feeling was strong in many minds that all this had been done by a sort of collusion with the administration for the purpose of terrifying the North into compromises which would forever perpetuate the slave power in the Union, and set it in unassailable control. It was believed there were too many friends of the Union in the South ever to suffer the fire-eaters to sunder the bonds of the States. The old Whigs, who had no sympathy with that sort of thing, would assert themselves, and the sober second thought of the people would be for bearing their present ills rather than to fly to others which they knew not of. And then, suppose they did rebel? What of it? The North is stronger than the South, and whatever may come we will not submit to have slavery enthroned over the whole land. We will not suffer men to bring their slaves into the free States and there hold them. So the Republic, voicing the feelings of one party, said emphatically, "No compromise." The opposition paper, on the other hand, was saying in effect: "See how mad you have made the Southern people by your abolitionism. We always told you this was what you would bring the country to. The only way now to escape dissolution and the horrors of war is to submit to what the slaveholders demand for their security, and let us take charge of affairs. It is no


[Illustration of Nelson Barnard]




wonder that the South should rebel at the election of an Abolitionist for President." But when the memorable day came, after all the uncertainty and suspense about the Star of the West, and about what would come of it all, that the flag was fired upon and that the South had invoked the arbitrament of war, all the talk of compromise ceased. The great majority of all parties said, The Union must be preserved. Over the wires came the proclamation of the President for 75,000 men to serve three months. In the South it was received with derision. There it was known far better than here that 75,000 raw volunteers would not be able to put an end to a conspiracy so vast. With the Mississippi River, Galveston, New Orleans, Mobile, Pensacola, Savannah, Charleston, Wilmington and Richmond in their possession, and with sympathizers in Kentucky and Maryland and Missouri, it was childish to suppose it could all be ended in ninety days and by soldiers the majority of whom had never smelled gunpowder in their lives. But who can describe the thrill of patriotism with which that message was received in the North? Seventy-five thousand men! They would overawe all opposition. When the South saw that the North would fight rather than surrender all, that would end the matter. Each volunteer then felt strong, and with the almost unanimous current of feeling it was thought by many that they would have a kind of holiday, would play at war for awhile, and then return home when the Union had been restored to receive the plaudits that would await them. It was an era of hallucinations. None foresaw the future, none in the North and none in the South. The Southern fire-eaters had utterly miscalculated the spirit of the North, and the terrible earnestness of the Southern fire-eaters was not understood in the North. On Sunday, April 14, the telegraph carried the news of the firing on Fort Sumter. On Monday afternoon, the 15th, the following call was issued for a meeting at the court house.

Americans! Union Men! Rally. The war has begun. Fort Sumter has fallen! Our flag has been insulted, fired upon and struck to traitors! A Pelican and Rattlesnake banner floats in its stead! Let it be torn down and the stars and stripes float in its place, or let us perish in the attempt. Davis, the traitor, says that next the Secession flag shall wave over the Capitol at Washington! Shall it be so? A thousand times No! Then tonight let us rally at the court house, burying all party names, and come to the rescue of the Republic against its mortal enemies. We are beaten at Sumter, but not conquered, and must rally to preserve the inheritance left us by our fathers. Come one, come all who love their country! To-night let us pledge our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor to the defense of the proudest flag that ever waved over a free people!

War Meetings and Enlistments. -- The court house was crowded early. The following are the official proceedings of the meeting. "On motion of R. A. Cameron, M. D., editor of the Republic, Dr. E. Jones was called to the chair, Messrs. E. R. Chapin and Alanson Finney chosen as Vice Presidents, and J. F. McCarthy, Esq., and J. A. Berry, editor of


the Starke County Press, chosen as Secretaries. The object of the meeting having been fully stated, on motion of Dr. Cameron, a committee of five (Messrs. Cameron, S. S. Skinner, J. N. Skinner, Jacob Brewer and M. L. De Motte) were appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. The Committee retired, and after a short absence returned and reported the following preamble and resolutions, which were received amid deafening applause. (Here follow preamble and resolutions of the most patriotic character.)

"The meeting was addressed by Messrs. De Motte, Cameron, Lytle, Jones, Rock, Pierce, Putnam and others, Democrats and Republicans, who, heretofore differing widely politically, were a unit on sustaining the Government, protecting the honor of our flag, and rebuking the thieves, murderers and traitors of the South. At the opening of the meeting, two American flags, emblems of our nation's glory, were brought in and suspended over the stand occupied by the President and Vice Presidents, which were hailed with long, loud and enthusiastic raptures of delight by the large audience present, to which additional excitement was added by the presence of the Union Band, that discoursed a number of national airs, such as 'Hail Columbia,' 'Marseilles Hymn,' etc. At the close of the meeting, an opportunity was given those who desired to register their names as volunteers, when a number of gentlemen came promptly forward, enrolled their names, expressing the sentiment that it was not for glory, but to fight."

The same number of the Republic contains general orders numbered one to twelve from Lewis Wallace, Adjutant General in regard to the organization of military companies, a proclamation of Gov. Morton calling for the organization of troops, the account of the bombardment of Sumter, and also a proclamation from Gov. Morton convening the Legislature in special session on the 24th of April.

The following number of the Republic (April 25) was issued with the name of E. R. Beebe as associate editor, R. A. Cameron having gone to Indianapolis with his company, and the first editorial correspondence, dated at that place, appears. Henceforth, correspondence from the scene of active operations made up a large part of each issue. Letters poured in, not only from the editor, but from Gil Pierce, who even then wielded the pen of a ready writer, De Witt C. Hodsden, J. F. McCarthy and numerous others. On Thursday, April 18, a meeting had been called at the court house (in the afternoon), to which the citizens came en masse, without distinction of party. Joseph Peirce was Chairman, G. Bloch, Secretary. Speeches were made by Messrs. Morrison, Hodsden, W. Bartholomew, J. N. Skinner, Rev. Gurney, M. L. De Motte, I. C. B. Suman, Charles Gurney and G. Bloch. Among the resolutions adopted,


was this: "That if it is found that there are Secessionists in our midst, we will not encourage violence and bloodshed at home, but we will withdraw from them our social relations, and if business men, we will not favor them with our patronage. "After the adjournment of the regular meeting, those who had signified their willingness to volunteer for the defense of the stars and stripes, whenever and wherever called, remained to organize and elect officers. The following were elected officers: R. A. Cameron, Captain; Lieutenants -- First, I. C. B. Suman; Second, G. A. Pierce; Third, O. H. Ray; Ensign, J. F. McCarthy, etc.

On Friday, the excitement was still unabated. Numbers enlisted, and the office of the Republic, where the lists were opened, was crowded most of the day. In the evening another meeting was called at the court house, presided over by T. G. Lytle. Some 200 blankets were donated by the citizens for the use of the soldiers, and $40 were raised for the purchase of a flag for the company. On Saturday afternoon, the Union Band presented, through M. L. De Motte, their beautiful flag, which had a short time before been presented to them by the ladies. Speeches were made in behalf of the company, by Cameron, McCarthy and Rev. S. C. Logan. On the Sabbath, a sermon was preached to the company by Rev. A. Gurney, and on that evening the company took the train for Indianapolis, many of the citizens accompanying them as far as Wanatah.

In the Field. -- Arrived at Indianapolis, the company, which numbered 130, was divided and the overplus joined with the overplus of another company from Ft. Wayne, formed a new company under the command of Capt. Comparet. In this company, J. F. McCarthy and O. H. Ray were Lieutenants. On the 29th of May, the Ninth Regiment, Col. Milroy, in which the Valparaiso boys constituted Company H, left Camp Morton for Virginia. The first trial the boys had of actual conflict with the rebels was at Philippi, on the 3d of June, where all the Indiana regiments were engaged. The rebels were taken by surprise, and a large amount of arms, horses, etc., was captured.

On Saturday, June 22, a meeting of the citizens of the county was held for the purpose of obtaining recruits. Speeches were made by James M. Lytle, F. Church, S. L. Bartholomew and Mr. Bartlet. On Monday, June 24, the volunteers met to effect their organization. The meeting was presided over by E. J. Jones, D. L. Skinner, Secretary. The officers of the company were chosen as follows; Captain, James M. Lytle; Lieutenants, Galbreath and Carr. Capt. Lytle gave his life on the field of battle. A mass meeting was held on the Fourth of July, to bid farewell to the company, as they were to leave on the evening of that day for Camp Tippecanoe.

In the Republic of July 19th appeared this song, composed by a


member of the Ninth Indiana Regiment. (It was forwarded by Gil Pierce, and doubtless he was the author):

                      "On Sumter's proud ramparts a traitorous hand,

                      Has torn from its staff the bright flag of our glory;
                      And blessed be God, who inspires our bold band,

                      That flag we'll replace though the ramparts be gory.
                      And the 'Bloody Ninth's' name, and the 'Bloody Ninth's' fame
                      Shall shine in our history in letters of flame.
                      And the Star Spangled Banner, once more it shall wave
                      O'er our country united, the home of the brave.

                      "Shall we shrink from the contest, brave comrades? Oh, no!

                      Let us fight while one stripe of that banner is waving,
                      Or fall with each face bravely 'turned to the foe' --

                      To the traitors who fight for their country's enslaving;
                      Contented to die, if that flag waves on high,
                      But never before the base rebels to fly;
                      For we've sworn that the Star Spangled Banner shall wave
                      O'er the Union again, or the 'Bloody Ninth's' grave.

                      "Let them come with their Beauregard, Davis and Wise,
                      The 'Ninth' will be there with their Colonel to lead 'em,
                      And while that proud banner is floating the skies.

                      With him they will fight for their Union and freedom.
                      The foe we'll destroy, and the name of Milroy
                      Shall sound through our country in paeans of joy,
                      While the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
                      O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave."

On July 24, the "Bloody Ninth" reached Indianapolis from the seat of war to be re-organized for the three years' service. The Twentieth Regiment, Col. W. L. Brown, with Capt. James M. Ly tie's company, from Porter County, left Indianapolis for Washington on the 31st of July, just ten days after the Bull Run disaster.

October 24, 1861, this delicate compliment is paid in the Republic to Secretary Cameron: "A number of horses, numbering 250, were sent this regiment (First Regiment Northwestern Cavalry in which was Capt. Buell's Company) from Pennsylvania, Secretary Cameron's State, and twenty-five of that number and only twenty-five were found fit for service, 227 being rejected as unsound and deficient in almost every conceivable manner. This is a fair specimen of Pennsylvania swindling, connived at by officials high in power. Let the West furnish her men with their equipments and horses, and Pennsylvania retain her old broken-down hacks for her own use, if the Secretary insists upon using all the ring-boned, spavined, windgalled, blind, stump-tailed, lamed, knock-kneed, worn-out broken-winded scrubs first." In Company G, of that Cavalry Regiment, were forty-seven Porter County men, of whom the Adjutant General's report of Indiana takes no notice.


The capture of Fort Donelson, on Sunday, February 16, 1862, was one of the bright spots in the history of the war, and gave rise to great rejoicing in Valparaiso as well as in other parts of the land. On Monday evening the court house was packed with the " chivalry and beauty" of Valparaiso. The ladies were out in full force, although it drizzled rain. Dr. Newland was called to the chair, and speeches were made (after prayer) by Gurney, Mattingly, Church, Bartholomew, President Sims and A. L. Jones. Of course a resolution was adopted. What would a meeting in the United States of America be without at least one resolution? This was one of "unbounded confidence in the wisdom and patriotism of our military leaders," etc. Of course, with 15,000 rebel prisoners just taken, they could afford to have a little confidence in the men who took them.

In the Republic of March 20, 1862, is a detailed account of the devastation wrought to the frigates Cumberland and Congress, by the rebel ram Merrimac, in Hampton Roads, on March 9, written by Capt. Lytle, whose regiment, the Twentieth, was engaged during the fight, together with the repulse of the Merrimac by the iron-clad Monitor. On the 15th of April, seventeen or eighteen men of the Ninth Regiment, who had been wounded in the engagement at Pittsburg Landing, were received at Valparaiso, and were kindly cared for by the citizens. In that engagement, David Thatcher, James Mitchell and David Armitage, belonging to Company H, were killed, and twenty-nine others were wounded. It began indeed to be the "Bloody Ninth." Sixty-two officers and men went into the action and thirty passed through it unscathed.

May 1, 1862, a meeting was held at the residence of Rev. S. C. Logan, to devise means of sending relief to the sick and wounded of the Indiana regiments.

A sanitary commission was appointed at a meeting held at the court house which issued an address to the people of Northwestern Indiana. The commission consisted of S. W. Smith, A. J. Buel, Elias Axe, Joseph Peirce, M. A. Salisbury, E. J. Jones and R. Bell, Jr. On the 28th of April, the following patriotic appeal was made to the Germans of Porter County:


An die Deutscen von Porter County.

Der Unterzeichnete ist bereit Beitrage zum Ankaufe eines Landgutes fuer Major General FRANZ SIGEL anzunehmen. Komme yeder und gebe sein scherflein zu einem so noblen Uuternehmen.
                                                             DR. MET. MAX HOFFMAN.

The cry of "fight mit Sigel" was taken up in Porter County.

On the 29th of May, 1862, was issued a call for a non-partisan convention to send delegates to the Union State Convention, which was to meet in Indianapolis on the 8th of June, and to appoint a Union County Central Committee to act for the year.


July 10, 1862, there appeared the following letter:

                                         COLUMBIA HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C.

MY DEAR MRS. LARNED: This morning, for the first time, I am able to write you a short note. I was shot in the left side and the left thigh, and the right wrist (slightly the latter). Three shots pierced my coat, so you see I was very fortunate to get off at all. There are no bones broken, and I am improving rapidly. My folks at B. come over to see me, and I will go home with them as soon as I am able to ride. I think it will be from four to six weeks before I could think of venturing West, but will go as soon as possible. Of my own brave boys, fifteen are gone and five are here wounded. They did their duty to a man. God bless them; but we all did so. LYTLE.

This was Capt. James M. Lytle, of the Twentieth. He was wounded in front of Richmond.

July 17, 1862, this item appears, "We regret to learn that the Rev. Dr. Brown, Chaplain of the Forty-eighth Regiment, is lying critically ill at Paducah. His wife was telegraphed for on Saturday evening last, requiring her to repair to his bedside as speedily as possible. She started for that place on the first train. The Presbyterian Church of this place, of which he was formerly pastor, appointed A. J. Buel, Esq., on its behalf on Sabbath to visit him. Mr. Buel left with his lady that evening." The Republic of the following week published the obituary of Dr. Brown, who died July 14, and the gallant Lytle passed away after long suffering, on the 20th of August following. Thus were the people tasting of the horrors of the war, and learning at what a price the Union was to be restored.

The order for the first draft for 300,000 men to serve for nine months was issued August 4, 1862. There was also a call for 300,000 volunteers. Both these calls were met with thanks on the part of the people. On Monday, August 10, a mass-meeting was held at the court house, which was addressed by Hon. C. W. Cathcart, of La Porte County. Dr. L. A. Cass was chosen as President of the meeting, and Thomas Jewell, Secretary. The purpose of the meeting was to raise $25 bounty for each man enlisting from the county. By the 14th of August, two full companies had gone into camp at South Bend. Not less than three hundred and fifty men had enlisted under the call for 600,000 men. The subscriptions were liberal and numerous, ranging from $1 to $100. But it would be impossible to follow up that eventful history to its close, and necessity compels us to summarize the work done by Porter County in suppressing the rebellion.

Military Statistics. — It is impossible to ascertain just how many men from Porter County were engaged in the war. The reports of the Adjutant General are very imperfect, omitting the names of some persons who served in Indiana Regiments, even those of some commissioned officers, and of those who enlisted in the regiments of other States he has


given no account. We have seen how many there were in a single regiment of cavalry which went from Illinois, and there were many who enlisted in the gunboat or naval service, or in Tennessee and Kentucky regiments. Many also were wounded or killed of whom these records preserve no account. The names of Porter County soldiers are found upon the rolls of twenty-nine regiments of infantry, four regiments of cavalry and two batteries of artillery which went from this State. But these names are chiefly to be found in the Ninth, Twentieth, Seventy-third, Ninety-ninth, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, One Hundred and Thirty-eighth and One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiments of Infantry, and in the Fifth, Seventh and Twelfth Cavalry and the Fourth Battery. Of those whose names are found in the Adjutant General's report, 156 were honorably discharged on account of disabilities from wounds or sickness, or for other reasons not given. Five hundred and thirty-nine were mustered out at the expiration of their term of service, or at the close of the war; twenty-five were promoted from the ranks to be commissioned officers; sixty were wounded in battle, of whom fourteen died; twenty-seven were killed in battle; fifty-eight deserted; in some cases the same person deserted twice; even one who had served three years and had re-enlisted as a veteran deserted before the close of the war; 106 died of sickness. The mere reading of this shows how imperfectly the report of the Adjutant General was made out, when we remember what befell Company H, of the Ninth, at Pittsburg Landing, and Capt. Lytle's company in the battles before Richmond. It must strike all readers as strange that there should have been fifty-eight desertions and only twenty-seven killed in battle. The terms of service of the several Indiana regiments containing Porter County men were as follows: The Ninth, three months; for three years. Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-second, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixty-third, Seventy-third, Ninety-ninth, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth; for one year, the One Hundred and Forty-second and One Hundred and Fifty-first; for 100 days, the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth.

The various calls for troops were as follows: First call for 75,000 men, three months, April 15, 1861; second call for 42,000 men, for three years, May 30, 1861; third call for 300,000 men for nine months, August 4, 1862; fourth call for 100,000 men for six months, June 15, 1863; fifth call for 300,000 men for three years, October 17, 1863; sixth call for 500,000 men for one, two and three years, July 18, 1864; seventh call for 300,000 men for one, two and three years, December 10, 1864.

Porter County paid for bounties during the war $65.227. 50. For


relief, that is for sanitary and Christian commissions, and for the families of soldiers, $54,606.33. For the draft of October 6, 1862, T. G. Lytle was Draft Commissioner, W. S. Dunning Marshal, and J. H. Newland, Surgeon. Only nineteen men were drafted at that time. The second draft was on the 17th of October, 1863. The total credits by enrollment and draft to July 18, 1864, were 686. Total to be furnished by second draft, sixty-nine. Under the draft ordered for December 19, 1864, there were 145 recruits; drafted men, seventy; total, 215. The revised enrollment, according to the Adjutant General's report, showed a total enrollment of 1,136 from Porter County.

It would be impossible, in the limits assigned, to give a history of the encampments, marches, battles, sieges, imprisonments, etc., of all the regiments having soldiers from this county. They made a gallant record, endured great hardships, and are deserving of the gratitude of their countrymen. As they returned home they were welcomed at Indianapolis and at Valparaiso, and since that time many of them have enjoyed public honors, and many have been entered upon the pension rolls of the nation. These things are worthy of mention: That ninety-nine re-enlisted as veterans after serving full three years. Nine are reported to have died in prison; two were dishonorably discharged. Of those who are reported as deserters, the writer, after a residence of seventeen years in the county, can say that he does not know one of them. The names are not familiar, and they have evidently sought other scenes.

The following is a list of officers from Porter County who served in the war of the rebellion:

Ninth Infantry. -- Robert A. Cameron, Captain of Company H, three months, commissioned April 22, 1861; mustered out at expiration of term; re-entered service and commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of the Nineteenth Regiment, July 29, 1861; transferred to Thirty-fourth Regiment February 3, 1862; promoted Colonel, June 15, 1862; appointed Brigadier General United States Volunteers, August 11, 1863; appointed Major General by brevet, March 13, 1865; resigned July 22, 1865. I. C. B. Suman, First Lieutenant Company H, April 22, 1861, three months; re-entered as Captain Company H, August 29, 1861; promoted Lieutenant Colonel, August 20, 1862; promoted Colonel April 17, 1863; appointed Brigadier General by brevet March 13, 1865. G. A. Pierce, Second Lieutenant Company H, April 22, 1861, three months; appointed Assistant Quartermaster August 3, 1861. W. H. Benny, Second Lieutenant Company H, August 29, 1861; Adjutant May 30, 1862; resigned November 24, 1862. Stephen P. Hodsden, Second Lieutenant Company E, September 1, 1861; promoted Adjutant March 3, 1863; promoted


Captain Company H, August 1, 1864. La Fayette Burr, Adjutant August 1, 1864; Quartermaster February 18, 1865; promoted Captain Company G; resigned April 5, 1865. Zaccheus B. Fifield, Second Lieutenant May 30, 1862; promoted Adjutant March 31, 1865. Harry Smith, Chaplain, November 17, 1863; resigned July 28, 1864. John K. Blackstone, Captain Company E, September 1, 1861; promoted Assistant Surgeon, November 15, 1861; resigned March 11, 1862. Max F. A. Hoffman, Assistant Surgeon, September 25, 1868; Surgeon One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, March 8, 1864. George W. Bloomfield, veteran. First Lieutenant, February 4, 1865. De Witt C. Hodsden, First Lieutenant Company H, August 29, 1861; Captain, August 20, 1862; died July 27, 1864, of wounds received in action. Robert F. Drulinger, First Lieutenant Company H, September 29, 1862; mustered out January 24, 1865. William Turner, First Lieutenant Company H, March 16, 1865. John VV. Brown, Second Lieutenant, March 16, 1865.

Fifteenth (three years) Infantry. -- John F. McCarthy, Second Lieutenant Company C, April 21, 1861; promoted First Lieutenant March 25, 1862; resigned July 23, 1862; appointed Assistant Surgeon, Twenty-ninth Infantry January 29, 1863; Surgeon December 9, 1863. Oliver H. Ray, First Lieutenant Company C, April 21, 1861; resigned March 23, 1862.

Twentieth Infantry -- Erasmus C. Galbreath, First Lieutenant Company I, July 22, 1861; promoted Captain August 20, 1862; Major, June 6, 1863; mustered out October 19, 1864; appointed First Lieutenant regular army, February 23, 1866; now (1882) Captain. James M. Lytle, Captain Company I, July 22, 1861; died of wounds August 19, 1862. Lorenzo D. Corey, Second Lieutenant Company I, August 20, 1862; First Lieutenant, March 25, 1863; Captain, June 6, 1863; mustered out. William T. Carr, Second Lieutenant Company I, July 22, 1861; First Lieutenant, August 20, 1842; dismissed March 20, 1863. William W. Stearns, Second Lieutenant Company I, March, 21, 1863; First Lieutenant, June 6, 1863; mustered out October 10, 1864. William S. Babbitt, Captain Company C, September 16, 1862; honorably discharged July 22, 1863. Anthony W. Smith, Second Lieutenant Company D (re-organized). May 16, 1865; mustered out as First Sergeant with regiment. Orpheus Everts, Surgeon, July 23, 1861; transferred to Twentieth Regiment at re-organization; mustered out with regiment. W. E. Brown, Commissary Sergeant at re-organization; Adjutant One Hundred and Fifty-fifth, 1865; Quartermaster, April 18, 1865; declined July 19, 1865.

Twenty-ninth Infantry. -- J. F. Heaton, Assistant Surgeon, June 15, 1865. Samuel E. Wetzel, First Lieutenant Company F, May 17, 1864;


Captain, June 1, 1865. Anson Goodwin, Second Lieutenant Company I, September 10, 1861; resigned January 11, 1862; Captain Company B, One Hundred and Fiftieth, February 20, 1865; mustered out with regiment.

Thirty-fourth Infantry. -- Stephen L. Bartholomew, Quartermaster, September 20, 1863; resigned December 4, 1863. S. C. Logan, Chaplain, September 20, 1863.

Forty-eight Infantry. -- James C. Brown, Chaplain, 1862; died in hospital at Paducah, Ky., of sickness contracted in the service. Theophilus Matott, Second Lieutenant Company D. November 1, 1862; First Lieutenant, January 23, 1863; resigned September 18, 1863.

Sixty-third Infantry. -- Henry O. Skinner, First Lieutenant Company B, July 1, 1864; Captain, August 18, 1864; mustered out May 20, 1865.

Seventy-third Infantry. -- Robert W. Graham, First Lieutenant Company I, August 5, 1862; Captain, October 20, 1862; Lieutenant Colonel, February 13, 1863; resigned March 9, 1863, from disability. Emanuel M. Williamson, Second Lieutenant Company I, August 5, 1862; First Lieutenant, October 20, 1862; Captain, February 13, 1863. Rollin M. Pratt, Captain Company I, August 5, 1862; resigned October 19, 1862. William C. Eaton, Second Lieutenant Company I, October 20, 1862; First Lieutenant, February 13, 1863; Captain, March 1, 1864; mustered out. Adolphus H. Booher, Second Lieutenant Company I, February 13, 1863; First Lieutenant, March 1, 1864; mustered out with regiment as Second Lieutenant. Charles S. Arnold, Second Lieutenant Company I, March 1, 1864; honorably discharged June 10, 1865. John L. Brown, Company E, Sergeant; promoted First Lieutenant.

Eighty-sixth Infantry. -- Nicholas E. Manville, Chaplain, January 8, 1862; resigned April 9, 1863.

Ninety-ninth Infantry. -- Fred W. Drawans, First Lieutenant Company C, March 2, 1862; resigned January 1, 1865. William Harmon, Second Lieutenant Company C, October 25, 1862; resigned March 1, 1864. Jacob Brewer, Captain Company C, August 18, 1862; resigned August 4, 1863. Charles R. Loux, Second Lieutenant Company C, May 1, 1865; mustered out with regiment.

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry. -- William H. Calkins, Quartermaster, December 8, 1863; promoted Major Twelfth Cavalry, March 4, 1864; mustered out with regiment. John E. Cass, First Lieutenant Company E, December 19, 1863; resigned March 25, 1865. John Fitzwilliams, Second Lieutenant Company E, June 1, 1865; discharged as First Sergeant. Benjamin Sheffield, Captain Company E, December 19, 1863; honorably discharged December 10, 1864.


One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Infantry. -- Thomas G. Lytle, Captain Company D (100 days), May 13, 1864; mustered out. Homer A. Goodwin, First Lieutenant Company D, May 13, 1864; mustered out.

One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. -- John B. Marshall, Second Lieutenant Company 13, February 20, 1865; mustered out. John E. Moon, First Lieutenant Company B, February 20, 1865; mustered out. Aaron W. Lytle, Captain Company E, February 23, 1865; mustered out. Charles E. Youngs, First Lieutenant Company E, February 23, 1865; mustered out. Orlando R. Beebe, Second Lieutenant Company E, September 10, 1865; mustered out with regiment as First Sergeant.

Fourth Battery. -- Henry J. Willetts, Second Lieutenant, Light Artillery, July 2, 1863; mustered out October 6, 1863 (term expired). Mark L. De Motte, First Lieutenant, September 15, 1861; resigned March 8, 1862; commissioned Assistant Quartermaster by the President April 14, 1862; resigned January 12, 1864. Augustus A. Starr, Second Lieutenant, September 15, 1861; resigned July 1, 1863.

Twentieth Battery. -- Warren C. Gilbreath, Second Lieutenant, March 16, 1865; mustered out with battery.

Fifth Cavalry. -- Arthur M. Buell, First Lieutenant, September 3, 1862; resigned December 1, 1862.

Seventh Cavalry. -- John C. Febles, Captain Company A, August 15, 1863; Major, October 27, 1863; resigned February 28, 1865. Aaron L. Jones, Quartermaster, June 24, 1864; transferred to Residuary Battalion as Quartermaster. John R. Parmelee, First Lieutenant Company A, August 15, 1863; Captain, October 27, 1863; mustered out as supernumerary. Henry S. Stoddard, Second Lieutenant Company A, September 1, 1863; First Lieutenant, October 27, 1863; resigned November 25, 1863, as Second Lieutenant. John Douch, Second Lieutenant Company A, October 27, 1863; First Lieutenant, November 26, 1863; transferred to Residuary Battalion, Company C. John C. Harmon, Second Lieutenant Company A, November 26, 1863; resigned August 13, 1864. Charles H. Gleason, Second Lieutenant Company A, August 14, 1864; transferred to Company C, Residuary Battalion.

Twelfth Cavalry. -- James H. Claypool, Chaplain, April 22, 1864; resigned January 5, 1865. William Bissell, First Lieutenant Company M, January 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment. Lewis Stoddard, Captain Company M, January 9, 1864; honorably discharged November 4, 1864. James M. Buell, Second Lieutenant, January 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment.


Sundry Corps. -- Alfred H. Laing, First Lieutenant Company E, Residuary Battalion Thirtieth Regiment, December 19, 1864. Ambrose Y. Moore, Hospital Chaplain, August 6, 1862. Henry Monroe Buell, Captain Illinois Cavalry.


Seventh Infantry. -- Jesse Kindig, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 4, 1862.

Eighth Infantry. -- Henry Powers, died January 4, 1863, of wounds received at Stone River.

Ninth Infantry. -- David Arvin, died near Marietta, Ga., January, 1864; John Ablet, died at Paducah, Ky., April, 1862, of wounds received at Shiloh; David Armitage, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862; Elias J. Axe, died September 24, 1863, of wounds received at Missionary Ridge; William D. Brown, killed at Chickamauga, September 19, 1863. James Bullis, killed at Chickamauga; George Beebe, died July 19, 1865; Ham Gibbs, died January 24, 1863; Charles Gould, died July 5, 1864; W. H. H. Howard, died July 25, 1864, of wounds received at Kenesaw Mountain; Benjamin F. Huntingden, killed at Buffalo Mountain, December 31, 1861; Lewis Keller, died of wounds received at Shiloh; Thomas R. Mackey, killed at Buffalo Mountain December 31, 1861; Henry Pratt, died February 2, 1862; Abner Sanders, died at Cheat Mountain January 3, 1861; Levi O. Spafford, died at Evansville, Ind., April 28, 1862; Manford Thatcher, killed at Resaca May 14, 1864; David Thatcher, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862; Joseph Turner, killed at Chickamauga September 20, 1863.

Seventeenth Infantry. -- Asahel G. Carmen, killed at Selma, Ala., April 2, 1865; Thomas W. Maxwell, killed at Selma April 2, 1865.

Eighteenth Infantry. -- Charles Allen, died at Bellaire, Ohio, February 13, 1862, of wounds.

Twentieth Infantry. -- John H. Cook, killed at Gettysburg, Penn.; Duane Ellis, died at Andersonville Prison September 5, 1864; Anton Fuller, killed at Chickahominy; John Torpy, killed at Gettysburg; John Shaffer, died at Washington December 2, 1862; Thomas Vanness, died at Washington June 6, 1864.

Twenty-ninth Infantry. -- Warren Babbitt, died at Andersonville Prison September 15, 1864; Fred Kocher, died at Andersonville Prison August 10, 1864; John Oliver, killed at Corinth May 9, 1862; Charles F. Skinner, died at Nashville.

Thirty-fifth Infantry. -- Charles C. Gaylord, died at Bull's Gap; Henry Granger, died at Nashville; George Miller, killed at Stone River January 2, 1863; Moses Spangle, died at Indianapolis.


Sixty-third Infantry. -- Preston Bauhm, died of wounds June 18, 1864; Jacob Jones, died of wounds June 2, 1864.

Seventy-third Infantry. -- Andrew Black, died at Gallatin, Tex., February 9, 1863; George J. Bradley, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 5, 1862; N. B. Blachley, died at Silver Springs November 16, 1863; Samuel Conner, died at Summersville, Ky., March 11, 1863; William Crisman, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 9, 1863; Curtis Dorsey, died at Nashville, Tenn., November 28, 1862; Nelse A. Erickson, died at Scottsville, Ky., November 11, 1862; Josiah B. Fox, died at Bowling Green, Ky., February 27, 1863; Robert Fluellan, killed at Decatur, Ala., October 27, 1864; Asa Glazor, died at Louisville, Ky., December 8, 1862; George N. Gunter, died at Nashville, Tenn., March 28, 1864; Lester Hitchcock, died at Danville, Ky., December 8, 1862; John Hineline, died at Scottsville, Ky., November 17, 1862; Theodore R. Hall, died at Camp Chase, Ohio, June 8, 1863; John Hawkins, died at Camp Lebanon, Ky., October 29, 1862; William H. Hendee, killed at Stone River December 31, 1862; Robert Jackson, killed at Day's Gap, Ala., April 30, 1863; Andrew Johnson, died at Indianapolis, Ind., October 23, 1863; Daniel Kouts, died of wounds January 18, 1863; Charles Munson, died at Silver Springs, Tenn., November 18, 1862; David G. Maine, died at Nashville, Tenn., November 30, 1862; Harlow Marsh, died at Danville, Ky., May 15, 1865; James McNally, killed at Stone River; James E. Piper, died at Louisville, Ky., March 17, 1863; Charles S. Spear, died at Stevenson, Ala.. December 7, 1864; Thomas Shell, killed at Stone River; Alexander Smith, died at Murfreesboro July 23, 1863; Charles Stinchcomb, killed at Stone River; Edward S. Squires, died at Danville, Ky., October 20, 1862; John A. Tidball, died at Louisville, Ky., November 9, 1862; Stephen Thornton, died in hospital January 24, 1865; William H. Underwood, died at Nashville, February 19, 1863; Elias Wheeler, died at Gallatin January 28, 1863; Wesley Watson, died at Danville, Ky., October 19, 1862; Hiram W. Walton, died at Nashville, Tenn., February 19, 1863.

Seventy fourth Infantry. -- Chancy R. Coulson, died at Jeffersonville, Ind., February 1, 1865.

Ninety-ninth Infantry. -- Justice Bartholomew, died at Andersonville, Ga., August 22, 1864; George W. Biggs, died at La Grange, Tenn., January 19, 1863; Benjamin Biggs, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 16, 1863; George W. Birch, died at Scottsboro, Ala., April 21, 1864; Hiram A. Case, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 10, 1863; Wallace L. Depance, died at Black River, Miss., August 27, 1863; Ira Doolittle, died at Snyder's Bluff, Miss., July 9, 1863; James Foster, killed at Atlanta, Ga.; John L. Kesler, died at La Grange, Tenn., Feb-


ruary 25, 1863; George W. Livingood, died at La Grange, Tenn., February 25, 1863; Charles Sleeper, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 7, 1863; John W. Taylor, died in Kentucky, November 17, 1862; Harvey White, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 11, 1863; William Wooster, died at Camp Towler, Tenn., February 4, 1863.

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry. -- Amos Coleman, died at Knoxville, Tenn., April 1, 1864; William Coleman, died near Marietta, Ga., August, 1864; Giles E. Cole, died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., December 12, 1864; Thomas Dolan, died at Michigan City, Ind., March 22, 1864; Samuel Furgeson, died at New Berne, N. C, March 14, 1865; George W. Hunt, wounded, supposed to be dead; Frederick Keene, died at Nashville, Tenn., April, 1864; John B. Millard, died at Nashville, Tenn., January 5, 1865; William Marshall, died of wounds at Calumet, Ind., January, 1864; Oliver P. Quinn, died at Alexandria, Va., June 12, 1865; Myron S. Robinson, died at Cleveland, Tenn., August 1, 1864; Chris. S. Sholer, died near Kenesaw, Ga., June 23, 1864.

One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Infantry. -- Edward J. Garwood, died at Tullahoma, Tenn., September 16, 1864; Frank Johnson, died at Tullahoma, Tenn., September 15, 1864.

One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. -- Elbridge Clark, died at Louisville, Ky., August 11, 1865; Reuben Clark, died at home March 5, 1865; Edgar Field, died at Tullahoma, Tenn., May 18, 1865; John P. Jones, died at Nashville, Tenn., June 30, 1865; George Lansing, died at Jeffersonville, Ind., April 7, 1865; Luther Smith, died at Deep River, Ind.; Ambrose S. White, died at Nashville, Tenn, July 19, 1865.

Fifth Cavalry. -- John R. Alyea, died at Florence, S. C; John Billings, died at Indianapolis; Daniel C. Bagley, died at Cleveland, Ohio, May 22, 1864; Homer O. Cadwell, died in rebel prison, Florence, S. C, in January, 1865; Isaac L. Downes, died in Andersonville Prison September 29, 1864; Leander Lightfoot, killed at Marrowbone May 26, 1863; Edwin W. Shumaker, died in Andersonville Prison August 12, 1864; James Southward, died at Knoxville, Tenn., October 13, 1863, of wounds; William Terrica, died at Knoxville September 23, 1862; Philip Walters, died at Kingston, Tenn.; Jacob Walters, died at Andersonville Prison October 28, 1864; Lewis Walters, killed at Resaca Ga., May 15, 1864.

Seventh Cavalry. -- Stephen Adams, died at Memphis, Tenn., March 13, 1864; John L. Babcock, died May 24, 1864; Edward Carpenter, drowned in the Mississippi River; Samuel P. Dunn, accidentally shot January 3, 1864; John Johnson, died at Andersonville Prison January 28, 1864; Henry Miller, died at Memphis, Tenn., May 4, 1864; Isaac


Margeston, died at Andersonville Prison August 14, 1864; John Marsh, killed at Guntown, Miss., June 10, 1864; Cornelius O'Neil, died at Cahawba, Ala., March 16, 1864; Clark S. Williams, died at Indianapolis, December 31, 1863; Alvin Welsh, died on hospital steamer August 15, 1864.

Twelfth Cavalry. -- Isaac Beam, died at Huntsville, Ala., July 3, 1864; John H. N. Beck, died at Edgefield June 13, 1865; W. B. Dorrance, died at New York Harbor April 19, 1865; Charles Friend, died at Nashville, Tenn., February 13, 1865; Ira Green, died at Huntsville, Ala., July 24, 1864; James Garrison, died at home; John S. Gillman, died at Huntsville, Ala., July 22, 1864; William H. Huntly, died at Indianapolis August 5, 1864; Erasmus J. Jones, died at Vicksburg March 22, 1865; Benjamin O. Jones, died at New Orleans; Seth P. Sherman, died at Valparaiso, Ind., July 9, 1864; Arza B. Spencer, died at Jeffersonville, Ind., August 27, 1864; Thomas Welch, died at Stark's Landing, Ala., April 10, 1865.

On record but not properly assigned. -- Thomas Buchanan, died June 13, 1862, of wounds received at Shiloh.

Popular Feeling. -- During the progress of the war, there were in Porter County as in every other part of the country, those who either were from the first, or who afterward became disaffected. There were those who were always discouraged and engaged in discouraging others, continually predicting disasters and the ultimate ruin of the country. There were those who were always criticizing the conduct of the war, not making allowances for the fact that as a people, we were unaccustomed to warfare, greatly destitute of experienced leaders, and that the work to be done was gigantic. There were those who were deeply grieved at the proclamation of emancipation, and many who thought, in 1863 and 1864, that the war should be ended and peace procured at any price. But it is to be said to the credit of Porter County, that her citizens never thought of making resistance to the power of the Federal Government; that within her borders there were no treasonable organizations. Nine-tenths of her citizens would at any time have joined in hearty efforts to put down any treasonable practices or attempts in their own midst. Men, indeed, became bitter in their feelings, because of reckless charges made against them of sympathy with secession, charges that often emanated from malice or from selfish or designing purposes. When the news came of disaster, deep was the feeling of sorrow on the part of all. If there were any who rejoiced, and it has been charged that a few did rejoice at the tidings of disaster, it was in secret. The power of party prejudice is often strongs and whatever may have been seen on such occasions to indicate a want of sympathy in the common feeling of horror at the defeats of which


sometimes there was news, it should have been attributed rather to gratification felt that their own predictions and forebodings had been verified, rather than to any sentiments of disloyalty to their country, or sympathy with those who were attempting its destruction. It was the feeling that so often prompts the "I told you so," when we hear of calamities of any kind which we have predicted.

When, just in the midst of the intense joy that was felt over the capture of Richmond and the surrender of Gen. Lee, there came the news of the assassination of President Lincoln, there was an almost universal expression of horror. An incident somewhat remarkable took place in Valparaiso at that time. F. W. Hunt had a clerk in his employ who had been in the habit of voting the Democratic ticket, and who was sometimes accused of not being in sympathy with the prosecution of the war. In the midst of the excitement caused by the assassination, and when the people were ripe for thoughtless revenge, the assertion was made by some one, that he had heard this clerk expressing joy at the death of Lincoln. Immediately, without any inquiry into the truth of the charge, the report spread from mouth to mouth, and for a time the life of the young man was in danger. He was deeply hurt, soon after left the place, and, it was said, never recovered from the effect produced upon his mind by the affair. Within a year of the time, perhaps, he sank disheartened into an early grave, having returned to his home in the East. In the mean time, his accuser removed to the far West, and the matter had almost passed from the minds of men, when he, being upon his deathbed, confessed, with deep repentance, that the charge which had cast a blight upon the reputation of another, and had caused his life to wither, had been an invention of his own, not planned in express malice, perhaps, but in recklessness, and in the desire to add to the excitement, and to bring himself into some prominence and notoriety. At that time, public meetings were held, the usual resolutions were adopted, appropriate sermons were preached in the various churches, and the appointed fast observed with due solemnity. At length the cruel war was over, and Johnny came marching home, and nearly every Johnny had friends to give him a glad welcome. The men who had been over Dixie from the Island No. 10 to Galveston, following Sherman on his march to the sea, or fighting "mit Sigel " on the Rappahannock, made the grateful change from the wild trade of warfare to the tamer pursuits of peace in agriculture or trade, and by industry and thrift, have helped to build up the nation's wealth with their own. The record of Porter County during the war, whether as to the number and the valor of her troops in the field, or the loyalty and liberality of her citizens who remained at home, is an honorable one. To the women of Porter County not less than to the men, praise is due for the loyal


[Illustration of Dr. H. Green]




spirit that prevailed and the earnest efforts that were made to succor the wounded, and minister to the wants of the suffering heroes of the county. Since the close of the war, there have been occasional re-unions at Valparaiso which have called forth the battle-scarred veterans to recount their adventures in camp and prison and conflict, and to laugh over their ancient jests retold. On these occasions, the citizens have taken pleasure in furnishing the needed refreshments, not only for the soldiers, but for their families. For Johnny is now not so much of a son and lover as he is husband and father. The boys, many of them, are turning gray-beards, and after the saving of the nation, are now helping to develop and control it. They are the Road Supervisors, School Directors and Township Trustees. Some of them have held county offices. Some are in the employ of the General Government in various departments. At least two of them write M. C. after their names, and more of them would be willing to. Nor has the national custom of honoring the heroic dead by annual visits to the local cemetery been forgotten. Large numbers of the people assemble for these rites, and leave upon the graves of deceased soldiers coronals and bouquets of evergreens and such flowers as this northern latitude produces on the 30th of May. No effort, however, has been made to perpetuate or develop the warlike spirit in this community by military organizations. There has not been, since the war, a military company or battalion or squad in the county, and hence neither drill nor encampment, nor parades. But the spirit of patriotism that abides in the hearts of the people is strengthened by the remembrance of the treasure and blood which our country and her institutions have cost. May God grant us perpetual and honorable peace, and bring in the day when swords shall be beaten into plow shares and spears into pruning hooks, and the nations learn war no more. Amen.



Transcribed by Steven R. Shook, February 2012


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